Bhakti Sandarbha 228-230 : Mixed Bhakti desiring only pure bhakti



This is the concluding portion of the section on sanga-siddha bhakti The progression is twofold. One is the motivation, the second is the actual practices one engages in. The closer one comes to exclusively engaging in svarupa-siddha bhakti with the goal of attaining pure prema is the best, even though here and there the Bhagavatam recommends mixed bhakti for results that are not pure prema.




Anuccheda 228

Saṅga-siddhā bhakti Mixed With Karma Desiring Only Bhakti


तदेवं कैवल्यकामायां ज्ञानमिश्रोक्ता। अथ भक्तिमात्रकामायां कर्ममिश्रा, यथा (भा. ११.१९.२०, २३-२४)—

We have thus explained, devotion mixed with non-dual awareness directed towards the attainment of liberation. Devotion mixed with karma, yet motivated solely by a desire for pure devotion, is described by Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa:

श्रद्धामृतकथायां मे शश्वन् मदनुकीर्तनम्। परिनिष्ठा च पूजायां स्तुतिभिः स्तवनं मम॥ इत्यादि,
मदर्थेऽर्थपरित्यागो भोगस्य च सुखस्य च। इष्टं दत्तं हुतं जप्तं मदर्थं यद्व्रतं तपः॥
एवं धर्मैर्मनुष्याणामुद्धवात्मनिवेदिनाम्। मयि सञ्जायते भक्तिः कोऽन्योऽर्थोऽस्यावशिष्यते॥
इत्यन्तम्।
O Uddhava, devotion to Me develops in the hearts of those who dedicate their being to Me through eagerness to hear the ambrosial stories related to Me, by regular recitation of My pastimes, by resolute faith in My worship, by glorifying Me with beautiful prayers... 
by giving up wealth, sensual enjoyment and self-centered happiness for My sake, by sacrifice, charity, offering oblations into the sacrificial fire, uttering mantras, observing fasts and other sacred vows, and by undergoing austerity for My sake. For such people, what more remains to be achieved? (SB 11.19.20, 23-24)
मदर्थे मद्भजनार्थं तद्विरोधितोऽर्थस्य परित्यागः। भोगस्य तत्साधनस्य चन्दनादेः। सुखस्य पुत्रोपलालनादेः। इष्टादि वैदिकं यत् कर्म, तदपि मदर्थं कृतं भक्तेः कारणमित्यर्थः। धर्मैर्भागवताभिधैः।

Giving up wealth for Bhagavān means to renounce objects opposed to His service. Giving up sensual enjoyment means to abandon objects like sandalwood paste, which facilitate such enjoyment. Renouncing self-centered happiness means to give up pleasures such as caressing one’s child. The other activities mentioned in the verse, which are all Vedic rituals, such as sacrifice, charity and offering oblations, also lead to devotion when done for the sake of Bhagavān. The word dharmaiḥ refers to bhāgavata-dharma, or the principles enunciated by God.

एवं कायवाङ्मनोभिस्तदर्थमात्रचेष्टावत्त्वेनानुष्ठितैर्भगवद्धर्मैरात्मनिवेदिनाम्। "यस्यास्ति भक्तिर्भगवत्यकिञ्चना" (भा. ५.१८.१२) इत्यादिन्यायेनास्य भक्तिमात्रकामस्य अन्यः कोऽर्थः साधनरूपः साध्यरूपो वावशिष्यते ? सर्वोऽसावनादृतोऽपि तदाश्रितो भवतीत्यर्थः॥

Thus, for a person desiring only devotion and having surrendered him/herself by the execution of bhāgavata-dharma, acting exclusively for the satisfaction of Bhagavān through one’s body, speech and mind, what more remains to be achieved, either in terms of practice or perfection? This understanding is in accordance with the principle stated in this verse:

The celestial beings and all their virtuous qualities are automatically established in one who has pure devotion to Bhagavān. (SB 5.18.12)

Although all other goals are disregarded by such a person, they remain at his or her disposal.

॥११.१९॥ श्रीभगवान्॥२२८॥


Commentary by Satyanarayana Dasa Babaji Maharaja

The third division of karma-misrā saṅga-siddhā bhakti is bhakti-mātra-kāmā, that executed with a desire to attain only bhakti. It has three divisions, namely mixed with karma, mixed with both karma and jñāna, and mixed with jñāna only. The one mixed only with karma is described in this anuccheda. The verses spoken by Kṛṣṇa list activities that are part of karma but are being executed only with the intention of attaining bhakti. Kṛṣṇa says that the results of such activity is that the practitioner gets bhakti to Him.


A question may arise here. What is the difference between āropa-siddhā bhakti that is done only with the intention of attaining bhakti (discussed in Anuccheda 224), and the saṅga-siddhā bhakti mixed with karma that is also done with such an intention (as discussed in the present anuccheda)?

The answer is that the first one involves only the acts of karma as prescribed for one’s social status. The sādhaka offers them to Bhagavān or executes them for the satisfaction of Bhagavān. This bhakti does not have any limb of svarūpa-siddhā bhakti in it. But in the second type the person engages in svarūpa-siddhā bhakti activities mixed with activities related to karma. The first type of activities are described in the first verse of this anuccheda and the other in the second.


Anuccheda 229

Saṅga-siddhā Bhakti Mixed with Karma and Jñāna Desiring Only Bhakti

कर्मज्ञानमिश्रा, यथा (भा. ३.२९.१५-१९)—

निषेवितेनानिमित्तेन स्वधर्मेण महीयसा।
क्रियायोगेन शस्तेन नातिहिंस्रेण नित्यशः॥
मद्धिष्ण्यदर्शनस्पर्शपूजास्तुत्यभिवन्दनैः।
भूतेषु मद्भावनया सत्त्वेनासङ्गमेन च॥
महतां बहुमानेन दीनानामनुकम्पया।
मैत्र्या चैवात्मतुल्येषु यमेन नियमेन च॥
आध्यात्मिकानुश्रवणान् नामसङ्कीर्तनाच्च मे।
आर्जवेनार्यसङ्गेन निरहङ्क्रियया तथा॥
मद्धर्मणो गुणैरेतैः परिसंशुद्ध आशयः।
पुरुषस्याञ्जसाभ्येति श्रुतमात्रगुणं हि माम्॥

Devotion mixed with both karma and jñāna and motivated by a desire for pure devotion is described by Bhagavān Kapiladeva:
Dharma directed toward Me includes all these activities: executing one’s prescribed duties with complete faith and without desire for any fruit, regularly carrying out the prescribed acts of worship without excessive violence, seeing, touching, worshiping, praying and bowing down to My deity form, perceiving Me within all beings, fortitude and detachment, respecting the sages, compassion for those in need, friendship toward those on the same level of awareness, avoiding detrimental action and adopting beneficial action, regularly hearing spiritual topics, singing My names, simplicity of heart, associating with sages, and giving up ego. By adopting these principles, a person engaged in Mydharma becomes fully purified in heart and easily attains Me merely by hearing about My qualities. (SB 3.29.15-19)
निषेवितेन सम्यग् अनुष्ठितेन। अनिमित्तेन च निष्कामेन। स्वधर्मेण नित्यनैमित्तिकेन। महीयसा श्रद्धादियुक्तेन।

The word niṣevitena, qualifying sva-dharma, or prescribed duties, means executed properly; and animittena, qualifying the same word, means without any motive. The word sva-dharma refers to the regular and incidental duties prescribed for one’s particular varṇa or disposition in life. The word mahīyasā, “greater,” also qualifying sva-dharma, indicates that prescribed duties are superior when endowed with faith.

क्रियायोगेन पञ्चरात्राद्युक्तवैष्णवानुष्ठानेन। शस्तेन उत्तमदेशकालादिमता निष्कामेन च। नातिहिंस्रेण अतिहिंसारहितेन। अतिशब्दः प्राणादिपीडापरित्यागफलपत्रादिजीवावयवस्वीकारार्थः।

Kriyā-yogena refers to the Vaiṣṇava methods of worship outlined in scriptures such as the Pañcarātra. Śastena, “esteemed,” qualifying kriyā-yogena, means that worship is enhanced when performed at the most auspicious time and place and without motive. Nātihiṁsreṇa, also qualifying kriyā-yogena, means that worship should be devoid of excessive violence. The prefix ati, “excessive,” in the word atihiṁsreṇa, indicates that violence cannot be avoided altogether. This implies that in worship one should refrain from causing pain to living beings and offer only the fruits, leaves and other offshoots of living things [which may be utilized without destroying the original plant or tree].

मद्धिष्ण्यं मदर्चादि । भूतेष्वन्तर्यामित्वेन मद्भावनया। सत्त्वेन धैर्येण। असङ्गमेन वैराग्येण च। "अहिंसासत्यास्तेयब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहा यमाः" (यो.सू. २.३०)। "शौचसन्तोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः" (यो.सू. २.३२)। आध्यात्मिकमात्मानमात्मविवेकशास्त्रम्। निरहङ्क्रियया गर्वराहित्येन।

Mad-dhiṣṇyam means the deity or other objects which embody Bhagavān’s form. Bhūteṣu mad-bhāvanayā means, “by perceiving Me as the Supreme Being situated in the hearts of all living beings. Sattvena means, “by fortitude,” and asaṅgamena means, “by detachment.” Yama means to refrain from detrimental acts, such as violence, theft, sexual indulgence and possessiveness. Niyama means to adopt beneficial acts, such as purity, satisfaction, penance, study of scripture and surrender to God. Adhyātmikam, or the spiritual topics to be heard, refers to scriptures that teach the difference between spirit and matter. Nirahaṅkriyayā means, “by being devoid of pride.”

मद्धर्मणो मद्धर्मानुष्ठातुः पुरुषस्य आशयश्चित्तम्। श्रुतमात्रगुणं मामञ्जसाभ्येति, "मद्गुणश्रुतिमात्रेण मयि" (भा. ३.२९.११) इत्याद्युक्तलक्षणां ध्रुवानुस्मृतिं प्राप्नोतीत्यर्थः। अत्राध्यात्मिकश्रवणादिना ज्ञानाङ्गेन ज्ञानमिश्रत्वमपि॥

The heart of a person who executes the dharma coming from God is easily attracted to Him merely by hearing about His qualities. This means that he attains continuous remembrance of God, as defined in this verse:

mad-guṇa-śruti-mātreṇa mayi sarva-guhāśaye
mano-gatir avicchinnā yathā gaṅgāmbhaso’mbudhau

Just as the water of the Gaṅgā continuously flows to the ocean, the stream of mind flows unobstructedly towards Me, the Supreme Being within all beings, simply by hearing of My qualities. (SB 3.29.11)

In this passage the reference to hearing scriptures that teach discrimination between spirit and matter is part of the path of jñāna, and as such the devotion being described here is mixed with jñāna also [along with karma, as described above].

॥३.२९॥ श्रीकपिलदेवः॥२२९॥


Commentary by Satyanarayana Dasa Babaji Maharaja

The verses cited here are spoken by Bhagavān Kapila to His mother Devahūti in response to her question about bhakti-yoga. Kapila describes various types of bhakti such as tāmasika, rājasika, sāttvika and nirguṇa. In the verses cited here He is describing mixed bhakti. Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī accepts that the mixture is of karma referred to by the word sva-dharma (3.29.15), and jñāna is indicated by the phrase ādhyātmikānuśravaṇāt (3.29.18).

The bhakti described is saṅga-siddhā because karma and jñāna are subordinate to kriyā-yoga (3.29.15), which is a term used for deity worship in the Pañcarātra literature. That this bhakti is bhakti-mātra-kāmā is understood from the last verse of the group. It speaks about purity of heart and attainment of Bhagavān, which is possible only by pure bhakti. In case of saṅga-siddhā sa-kāmā bhakti there is no purity of heart, and in case of saṅga-siddhā kaivalya-kāmā there is no attainment of Bhagavān.




Anuccheda 230

Saṅga-siddhā Bhakti Mixed with Jñāna Desiring Only Bhakti


अथ ज्ञानमिश्रा (भा. ६.१६.६२)—
दृष्टश्रुताभिर्मात्राभिर्निर्मुक्तः स्वेन तेजसा।
ज्ञानविज्ञानसन्तृप्तो मद्भक्तः पुरुषो भवेत्॥

Devotion mixed with jñāna and motivated by a desire for pure devotion is described by Bhagavān Saṅkarṣaṇa to King Citraketu:

By the power of one’s discrimination, one should become free from the thirst for sense objects that are either directly experienced or heard about. Then being fully satisfied by knowledge and realization, a person should become My devotee.
(SB 6.16.62)

दृष्ट इति ऐहिकामुष्मिकविषयैः। स्वेन तेजसा विवेकबलेन॥

The word dṛṣṭa, “seen,” refers to sense objects that are directly experienced in this world, and the word śruta, “heard,” refers to sense objects that are heard about in scripture [such as the pleasures of heaven] and which pertain to the next life. Svena tejasā, “by one’s own prowess,” means by the power of one’s discrimination.

॥६.१६॥ श्रीसङ्कर्षणश्चित्रकेतुम्॥२३०॥


Commentary by Satyanarayana Dasa Babaji Maharaja

The bhakti described here is bhakti-mātra-kāmā because Bhagavān says to Citraketu that the person should become His devotee. He is not speaking about attaining some material boon or liberation. Thus it excludes sa-kāmā as well as kaivalya-kāmā bhakti. The bhakti that is mixed with jñāna is known from the words svena tejasā referring to the power of discrimination, which is one of the four basic qualifications for the path of jñāna. It is saṅga-siddhā because jñāna is subordinate to bhakti.


Bhakti Sandarbha 226-227 : Kaivalya-kāmā Bhakti mixed with karma and jnana
Bhakti Sandarbha 225 : Three Divisions of Saṅga-siddhā Bhakti
Bhakti Sandarbha 224 : Three Motives Behind the Offering of Karma
Bhakti Sandarbha 222-223: The Result Of Karma is Under the Control of Bhagavān
Bhakti Sandarbha 218-221: Karma Offered To Bhagavān Destroys Karma
Bhakti Sandarbha 217: Three Divisions of Bhakti (Āropa siddhā bhakti)
Bhakti Sandarbha 216 : Ahaṅgrahopāsanā and Sādhanā Bhakti Defined
Bhakti Sandarbha 214-215 : The Process of Brahman Realization
Bhakti Sandarbha 212-213 : The Spiritual Guru is the Manifestation of Bhagavān
Bhakti Sandarbha 210-211: The Mantra Guru is Also Compulsory

Comments

Anonymous said…

अति áti “passing , going, beyond”

Bhakta: Because by his adoration (bhā'jana-tā) being a vessel for, and in possession of supreme devotion, with his mind, speech, body and action (kāyá-karma-bhiḥ) he crosses over beyond (tarati) escaping all miseries, he is called a bhaktá.

Kulārnava Tantra

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