Erotic sculptures on Jagannath temple


This was written on the basis of Sundarananda Vidyavinode's Sri Kshetra and intended for a devotee audience, as it was done on a commission by disciples of Bhakti Promode Puri Maharaj. It has never been published. I decided to put this on line since there was a discussion on Facebook on the subject and I thought I would revisit what I wrote here nearly twenty years ago. This is from chapter ten on temple renovations.


Life-size carved figures of men and women in various sexual postures (mithuna) as described in the Kāma-sūtra of Vatsyayana have long been visible on the outside of the temple building and inside the Jaya Vijaya gate. Even so, with the deplastering and restoration program of the Archaeological Survey of India, many more such carvings on the temple came to light after being hidden for centuries.

For a devotee, the erotic depictions that cover the temple present something of a problem. If God is transcendental to this world, and if sexuality is the aspect of the material creation that most strongly binds us to it, then how can it be so explicitly glorified on the house of the Lord? As one scholar, A. P. Singh, comments, these sculptures appear to be “an apparent contradiction to the spiritual and religious fervor noticeable in the sacred precincts of the temple." He goes on –
Could our sculptors, who were seemingly well-versed in Hindu mythology as well as the tenets of Hindu religion, stoop so low as to depict highly provocative mundane figures engaged in sex with the most vibrant erotic impulses side by side with the divine images of our gods and goddesses? Is this not a mockery of the sacred rites performed at the altar of the presiding deity of the temple?
When British Christians first came to Orissa and saw such explicit depictions of the Kāma-sūtra on the outside of religious buildings, they were shocked. It added fuel to their prejudices against Hindu society as decadent. They considered these sculptures to be pornographic representations mirroring the degeneration of moral standards in Orissa, reflecting the perverted tastes of the patrons of the temple. They even took them as proof that ritual activities of a fertility cult, so-called “sacred prostitution,” took place in the temple – even though there is no proof of the existence of any such lewd rituals.

Sundarananda Vidyavinode suggests that such opinions are the expression of an overactive imagination, misled by the presence of the six enemies of spiritual consciousness – lust, anger, greed, illusion, intoxication and envy. The fact is that such sculptures are a generalized feature of Hindu architecture and are found not only on the facade of the Puri temple, but on many other temples throughout India, and not just in Orissa. They are even present on one Roman Catholic church!

Ancient architectural texts ordained the carving of such figures on temples as a way of warding off lightning and other natural calamities. The reasoning given is that such figures protect the temple from lightning since Indra, the wielder of the lightning bolt, is himself a voluptuary and would not damage a replica of his own heaven and its sensual sports. Indra once blessed all women that they should never be disturbed when engaged in sexual union; his vajra would thus never strike a structure upon which the mithuna figures have been carved.

Indeed the Utkala-khaṇḍa contains the following verses:

vajra-pātād-bhītādi-vāraṇārthaṁ yathoditam
śilpa-śāstre'pi mapyādi(?)-vinyāsa-pauruṣākṛti
adhaḥ-śākhā catuṣṭāṅgo pratihāro niveśayet
mithunair atha vallībhiḥ śākhāśeṣaṁ vibhūṣayet
mithunaiḥ patra-vallībhiḥ prādhaś copaśobhayet

These verses say that the mithunas are supposed to be carved all around the lower part of the temple structure, along with floral designs, in order to ward off the fear of thunderbolts.

However, this is not the only explanation of these sculptures. After all, temple ritual does include a tradition of worshiping these sculptures on Ananga Trayodasi, when Kamadeva or Cupid is feted. On that day, the first mithuna worshiped is Anangatura, which is found on the outer northern wall of the Jagamohan. The Bhagavatam tells us that Kamadeva is a portion of Lord Vasudeva (kāmas tu vāsudevāṁśaḥ, BhP 10.55.1).

Does this mean that these sculptures are glorifications of Tantric sexuality, where sex seen as a spiritual path in its own right, in which man and woman in erotic embrace symbolize the ultimate union of the soul with the Divine? Some say that such erotic pictures are graphic equivalents of the mystical syllable om. There is little doubt that Tantric attitudes to sexuality form an undercurrent throughout Hindu society, but there is no evidence that such esoteric practices were ever promoted in the mainstream of that society or ever held in anything but suspicion by the orthodoxy.

For some, the sculptors who decorated the outside of Lord Jagannath’s temple were trying to depict life of in all its manifestations, both realistic and ideal. Many scenes reflect various aspects of life, from the ordinary life of a cultivator to that of kings and gods. The erotic carvings were thus simply a part of this realistic depiction. Some say the temple represents heaven on earth, and since heaven is the abode of apsaras, the place of sensual delight, erotic sculptures have also been placed on the temple.

Lord Jagannath is the national deity of Orissa as well as its king. As such, He is not only there to provide liberation to his progeny, but to assure them the possibility of experiencing the fullness of material life as well. In general, the agricultural society of Orissa relies on reproduction; economic development is based on “going forth and multiplying.” Its success is achieved in enjoying human life, the pinnacle of which is sexual enjoyment, which in turn leads to reproduction and the continuation of the cycle of life.

Dharma, artha, and kama are also goals of human life that are not to be discarded. This then is symbolized in the temple structure: it is there for all the people, regardless of their level of spiritual advancement, their desires or their objectives in life. Lord Jagannath is the God of all these beings as well as being the God of His exclusive devotees. He does not exclude anyone, but takes the desires of His devotees seriously.

ye yathā māṁ prapadyante
tāṁs tathaiva bhajāmy aham
mama vartmānuvartante
manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ
As one surrenders to Me, so do I respond to him. All men follow my path in every way, O Partha. (Gita 4.11)


The way of salvation passes through the material world with all its charms and attractions. Unless a devotee overpowers the captivating charms of the flesh, he cannot have access to the divine spirit. One must first come to realize the futility of the flesh and its charms in order to have a clear conception of the way that leads to the Divine. Thus some people hold that these erotic carvings serve as a reminder of the potential pleasures of the material world to the sa-kāma and also tests the sincerity of the niṣkāma sadhaka who seeks liberation from material desire.

akāmaḥ sarva kāmo vā
mokṣa kāma udāra dhīḥ
tīvreṇa bhakti yogena
yajeta puruṣaṁ param
All people of expansive intelligence should worship the Supreme Person by the process of intense bhakti-yoga, whether they are pure devotees without any personal desire, or whether they are filled with all kinds of desires, or seek liberation (SB 2.3.10).
Thus, the temple represents the five koshas that one has to pass through to reach the stage of pure spirituality. One has to symbolically overcome Maya by circumambulating the temple before one can enter the innermost sanctum. They are meant to test the devotion of the pilgrims and the sincerity of their prayers. But whatever the case, a devotee who enters the temple to pray to Lord Jagannath receives the Lord’s mercy –

satyaṁ diśaty arthitam arthito nṛṇāṁ
naivārthado yat punar arthitā yataḥ
svayaṁ vidhatte bhajatām anicchatām
icchāpidhānaṁ nija-pāda-pallavam
It is true that Lord Krishna fulfills desires whenever someone petitions Him to do so. However, He does not award anything that, once having been received, will be asked for again and again. Even if such worshipers show no desire for His lotus feet, the Lord personally bestows the benediction on them whereby they will forget all their transitory material desires. (SB 5.19.28)
Another way of looking at the temple structure is as a glorification of the Lord’s pastimes. Jagannath is the king, not only of Orissa, but of the entire universe. Every aspect of His life is to be glorified, including his conjugal pastimes with His divine energies and consorts, His Lakshmis.

The divine śṛṅgāra-rasa is the basis of Lord Krishna’s pastimes in Vrindavan. It is the basis of the concept of beauty. Lord Jagannath is Madan Mohan, the enchanter of the mind of even Cupid. He is the supreme emperor and exclusive enjoyer, the transcendental Cupid. Those whose eyes have been daubed with the salve of divine love will recognize these sculptures as depictions of that reality.




Comments

Anonymous said…
To enter within the 'body' of the temple one must walk passed such external sculptures... as you have quite rightly described in your blog posting of the 14/06/14 'Conceiving a Jaiva Dharma world. What am I thinking?'

http://jagadanandadas.blogspot.com/2014/06/conceiving-jaiva-dharma-world-what-am-i.html

The procreative force must be sublimated (changed from one state to another and raised); with skill, the breath and one-pointed mind achieve this state of union within the Vimana of the temple.

See:

http://ssubbanna.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/devalaya-layout-one.jpg

http://ssubbanna.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/devalaya-layout-two1.jpg
Anonymous said…
The second image of your post is an allegorical depiction of the spiritual offspring of the union of masculine and feminine by the sublimated (changed from one phase to another) seed.

How?

Like this:

Gorakh Bani – Śábda 49

चालत चंदवा षिसि षिसि पड़ै ।

§ 49(1) A strong stirring tremulous (up and down) motion, rising and falling in waves, surging, swelling, overflowing with passionate desire which gives a footing to stand out above, establishing one ready to ride (firmly) mounted above (as if upon a horse).

बैठा ब्रह्म अगनि परजलै ।।

§ 49(2) Seated, moving in a repeated back-and-forth motion (circulate, spin the sublimated procreative force) causes (one) to be brought near (to) the supreme fire (when) the absolute highest point of the sap springs out (of the top of the head) like a fountain.

आडै आसणि गोटिका बंध ।

§ 49(3) Remaining seated, in (this) union (work hard to) pull and draw (up the sublimated procreative force, churning it around repeatedly) to lead (the) wild horse (to) run (and rise up).

जावत प्रथिमी तावत कंध ।।४९।।

§ 49(4) In this manner, drive this on faster, pressing forwards (and backwards) quickly to excite and make (the sublimated procreative seed) flow upwards (above the skull); stretching, extending the swelling (energy upwards) sprouting above the head and spraying out (like water).

यहु मन सकती यहु मन सीव।

§ 50(1) By the minds will, direct ones aim (repeatedly) towards the target, the purpose of ones desire to push rapidly without and stand outside swelling and growing upwards to (allow the sublimated seed to) flow, run and fly (out); repeatedly striking upwards from inside, strongly stretch up extending (as from internal pressure) (the energy above the top of the head) allowing the sap to pass through and fly upwards.

Notes

The yogin will "ride" himself in this ecstasy - it will happen naturally - the yogin will need no prior knowledge to be able to do this - when the time comes he will know what to do, and will do it naturally. In this state, the yogin will raise a phallus of energy (held in the mouth of the 10th gate) above his head which will shoot out his (sublimated) seed into the void.

In this (Kriyā-like) state of ghoTika-bandh ([wild] Horse (f) [mare] – Bandh [position of the body]) the yogin experiencing this tantric Kriyā - his body movements will actually look like he is riding a horse (both horse and rider being the yogin’s own self).

The practicing yogin remains seated, rocking backwards and forwards in a rotational horse-riding-like movement, the yogin will also repeatedly lower and raise his head (just like a horse) and breath fast (through both nostrils) sounding just like a horse.
Anonymous said…
A copy of conversation regarding gotiká bandha which is relevant to the above:

This morning one was thinking about what you said to my person a couple of days ago:

“While it is clear that a gotiká is some kind of alchemical pill (James Mallinson also thinks this).”

Your statement is very much misguided, and here is the reason why:~

The “alchemical pill” or more accurately ‘mercurial pill’ (which is “held in the mouth”) is veiled by allegory (a symbolic representation which can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning).

So let us both look at this so-called “alchemical pill”, pull back the veil to throw a little light on the subject to decipher the hidden meaning.

As Sanskrit is old (very old) we must first understand the word “pill” from its earliest etymological form (its original true sense) and match its true meaning to the (old) Sanskrit:

Pill, from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch “pille”
Source: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pill

From Middle Low German pilere, pilar, from Medieval Latin pilare, pilarium, from Latin pīla ‎(“pillar”).

Source: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pille#Middle_Dutch

From the Proto-Indo-European pil- ‎(“one string of hair”)

Source: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pilus#Latin

From Middle English *pill, *pyll, from Old English pyll ‎(“a pool, pill”), from Proto-Germanic *pullijaz ‎(“small pool, ditch, creek”), diminutive of Proto-Germanic *pullaz ‎(“pool, stream”), from Proto-Indo-European *bale- ‎(“bog, marsh”). Cognate with Old English pull ‎(“pool, creek”), Scots poll ‎(“slow moving stream, creek, inlet”), Icelandic pollur ‎(“pond, pool, puddle”).

Source: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pill

Now we know it is in fact a “pillar”, a “single string of hair” and a “stream”, we can deduce that the word “pill” in this (yogic) Sanskrit context describes something very different, very different indeed.

From practice, one should know that the pillar is in fact a yogic “liṅgaṃ” (of energy) which rises above the skull, from which a stream of sublimated procreative force (seed - in the form of the 4th state of matter) comes out (into the void).

Now let us look at the word mercury (after all, we are told the pill is “calcined” [Heated to high temperatures in air or oxygen], a “calcined mercury pill”).

Ask yourself “what does mercury do when it’s heated?”

Yes, that’s right, mercury rises when heated.

So now we have a liṅgaṃ (a pillar [of energy]) which rises when heated…

What produces heat? Fuel, air and fire… Now ask yourself what produces yogic heat (penny dropped yet..)

Now the last part, the pill (liṅgaṃ) is held in the mouth, what mouth is this?

In yogic terms, the yogic mouth (yoni) is the tenth gate, the gate which opens up at the top of the yogin’s skull.

So now we have it all, it is a liṅgaṃ which has pierced, and being held in the mouth (yoni) of the tenth gate.

That is why one said “Next time one sees a śiva liṅgaṃ, think of Śábda 49”.

In regard to the śiva liṅgaṃ of Śábda 49 and all that has been said, do not forget to view the Indian Museum's Unicorn seal of the Indus Valley:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicorn

One may also find this useful:

Go-Ti-Kha = A fountain (from) a Pillar upon a horse

गो go horse (on a)

http://spokensanskrit.de/index.php?page=2

यष्टि { -टी } yaSTi { -TI } = pillar

http://spokensanskrit.de/index.php?beginning=0+&tinput=ti&trans=Translate&direction=SE

khā = fountain

http://sanskritdictionary.com/?q=kh%C4%81&iencoding=&lang=

One hopes you find the truth of these words in practice.

Kind regards,
M. N.


Note

See Monier-Williams regarding the entry "Go" (Horse)

http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw0363-gRhu.pdf

Unknown said…
Aisa chutiyapa Hinduism me hi possible hai.
Shame.
Thoo..
Dharm ke naam pe vyabhichar failane ka achha bahana hai, to prevent lightening bolt...
Anonymous said…

Ādeśa - Dear Unknown (4/7/17),

Expressions of Sanātana Dharma (the eternal nature of all) may be found amongst all; in regard to your statement, just look at this ancient sculpture:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/Menkaura_Bust_Closeup.jpg

Kind regards,

śrīmaccidānandanātha
I once heard from Atmatattva prabhu (famous Indian speaker in ISKCON in 80' and 90')explanation of this problem that the outer side of the temple represents the material world and the inner - spiritual realm.
Indidigital7 said…
Hii there
Nice blog
Guys you can visit here to know more
Lord Jagannath Temple
kavin ka said…
Sai Baba has always believed that education is an effective tool for transformation.

madhusudan naidu

madhusudan naidu muddenahalli
Anonymous said…
Dear Kavin Ka,

May one reccomend the following book in regard to Śábda 49 of the Gorakh Bani:

Haṭhatatvakaumudī

ISBN 10: 819016175X or ISBN 13: 9788190161756

Kind regards,

A-non
Indidigital7 said…
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Nice blog
check out our blogs
chandi devi temple haridwar
Anonymous said…

Bhairava receives the Alchemical Pill

She (Vakrā "the divine fire") said: “Arise, O Mitradeva, saviour of the universe, move (freely) in Kāmarūpa during the Age of Strife according to (your) power. 135cd-136ab

According to Kula doctrine you are the sole creator and destroyer. The accomplishment of the Pill (guṭikāsiddhi) has been given to (you). (Now) wander freely as you please." (135cd-136ab)

Volume 1, Chapter 6 (page 129), Verses 134cd-135ab and 135cd-136ab of the Manthānabhairavatantram Kumārikārikākhaṇḍaḥ (translated to English by Mark Dyczkowski).

Notes

N.B.* The previous reader's comment above (dated 'Wednesday, 19 October, 2016') regarding gotiká bandha!
Anonymous said…

घोट (ghoṭa) m. (cf. √ ghuṭ) a horse:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=379.gif

Śábda 49(3) of the Gorakh Bani explicitly uses the analogy of a horse (in the context of riding the energy of the breath):

§ 49(3) Remaining seated, in (this) union (work hard to) pull and draw (up the sublimated procreative force, churning it around repeatedly) to lead (the) wild horse (to) run (and rise up).

घुट् (ghuṭ) to strike again ghoṭa:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=377.gif

Śábda 50(1) of the Gorakh Bani places the root word (ghuṭ) in its correct yogic context (the consummation of the marriage [of opposites] in [and as a solidified phallus held above] the bridal chamber [and the 10th gate which opens at the the pericarp] of the skull):

यहु मन सकती यहु मन सीव।

§ 50(1) By the minds will, direct ones aim (repeatedly) towards the target, the purpose of ones desire to push (the energy) rapidly without and stand outside swelling and growing upwards to (allow the sublimated seed to) flow, run and fly (out); repeatedly striking upwards from inside, strongly stretch up extending (as from internal pressure) (the energy above the top of the head) allowing the sap to pass through and fly upwards.

Notes

See also:

घुड् (ghuḍ) (= √ ghuṭ), to prevent, defend, protect:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=377.gif
guṭikāsiddhi said…

Apology, one could have explained the word घुट् (ghuṭ) “to strike again” a little better. In Śábda 50(1) of the Gorakh Bani the Sanskrit word ghuṭ is analogous to the phrase “repeatedly striking upwards from inside.”

When one rides the energy of the breath, the (sublimated procreative life-force) energy is repeatedly ridden (in ecstatic waves) up and down the body (from the testicles to the top of the inner skull [repeatedly striking the pericarp inside the skull] at the top of its energetic stroke); eventually the yogin pierces the skull (with the energy), and the energy (passes through the [yoni of the] 10th gate and) swells up forming a rigid energetic phallus (held in the mouth of the 10th gate) which rises above the skull (see note 1).

Notes

1. The energy swells upwards above the skull and becomes rigid (like an erect phallus fills up with blood and become rigid); my person has read this yogic state in other texts where it is described as “congealed.”

”Place the finger of your intellect through the ring of truth.”

“when you should-make-the-two one, and if you should-make-the-side-inner like the-side-outer, and the-side-outer like the-side-inner, and the-side upper like the-side-lower, and so you will-be-making the-male and-the-woman that-one alone, so that not-the-male become-male, (nor)- the-woman become-woman”

“Said-he to-them this: he-who-has-ear of-him, let him listen; there-is-light exists in-the-inner of-a-man-of-light and he-becomes-light to-the-world”


Grondin`s Interlinear Coptic/English Translation of The Gospel of Thomas
Anonymous said…

The Alchemy of Solidifying Mercury

viśuddhacakre ’mbaratatvabhedāt prāpnoti yogi guṭikādisiddhim ||
krodhādilainyātparivṛddhasatvaḥ kāye ’kṣayaḥ sṛṣṭivikampanaḥ syāt ||3||

Verse 3, Chapter 30, Haṭhatatvakaumudī (Sundaradeva).
Anonymous said…

"Thus various sounds are cognised by daily practice of this kumbhaka. Last of all is heard the Anâhata sound rising from the heart; of this sound there is resonance, in that resonance there is a light. In that light the mind should be immersed. When the mind is absorbed, then it reaches the highest seat of Vishṇu (parama-pada). By success in this Bhrâmarî Kumbhaka one gets success in Samâdhi."

Verses 81-82, Fifth Lesson (Prâṇâyâma, or Restraint of Breath), Gheranda Samhita (Translated into English by Rai Bahadur Srisa Chandra Vasu).

Read online:

https://archive.org/details/TheGherandaSamhitaRaiBahadurSirisaChandraVyas/page/n55

Download an Adobe Pdf document:

https://archive.org/download/TheGherandaSamhitaRaiBahadurSirisaChandraVyas/The%20Gheranda%20Samhita%20-%20Rai%20Bahadur%20Sirisa%20Chandra%20Vyas.pdf
ghaṭāvasthā said…

The Pot Stage (ghaṭāvasthā)

“(105) Neglecting his practice he will then become an ordinary man. So he should not forget his guru’s teachings and practise day and night. (106) The pot state (ghaṭāvasthā) arises through constant practice in this way. Not practising yoga gets one nowhere; it is not mastered by getting together and talking. (107) So one should make every effort to practise nothing but yoga.”

Download an Adobe Pdf of the Dattātreyayogaśāstra:

https://terebess.hu/keletkultinfo/lexikon/Datta-Mallinson.pdf


Notes

घ (gha) see 3 “striking, a stroke”:

ट (ṭa) see 2:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=429.gif

See also करङ्क (karaṅka) “the skull, head, a cocoa-nut hollowed to form a cup or vessel, a kind of sugar-cane, any bone of the body”:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=254.gif

वस् (vas) See 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 & N.B.* 8 “to make firm”:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=930.gif

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=931.gif

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=932.gif

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=933.gif

थ (tha) see 2 N.B.* “m. a mountain”:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=464.gif
Anonymous said…

Bya rgod (“bird” + “wild”, “vulture”) is a Tibetan word yielding Vedic garut, “wing”, and garuda (“hawk”, Vedic celestial bird); and rgod ma (“wild one”, “mare”) yields ghoṭa, a widespread Prakrit word for “horse”, replacing the Vedic and virtually pan-IE word aśva. But these roots only affect Indo-Aryan languages and could be accommodated in an AIT scenario, where the Aryan immigrants would borrow some words from a native Tibetan population, which all the more westerly tribes speaking IE would miss out on.

Source: https://koenraadelst.blogspot.com/2018/08/arya-tibetan-case-for-oit.html


Notes

अश्व (áśva) see 1 & 2 “a horse, stallion; the archer (in the zodiac); a particular kind of lover (horse-like in strength); to behave like a horse”:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=114.gif

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=115.gif

Again, this is a multi-valent word; one must disassemble it further to extract supplementary meaning:

अश् (aś) see 1 “to pervade, penetrate, fill”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=112.gif

व (va) read through all of 2:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=910.gif

“Finally, the Liṅga of the KJN, said to be both corporeal (dehaliṅga) and mental (manoliṅga), is above the head at the very apex of all the wheels / lotuses of the body that mark the ascent of Kuṇḍalinī. Although above the head, it is still part of the subtle body. But at the same time it is a mental Liṅga. The Kubjikā Tantras take up both these ideas and enrich them in their own way. The goddess's Liṅga is situated in the End of the Twelve, that is, at a distance of twelve fingers above the crown of the head. It is, moreover, not just a mental Liṅga, it is a trans-mental one formed from the energy of the trans-mental (unmanī), which is the goddess's deepest metaphysical identity.”

Source (Page 255):

https://archive.org/details/ManthanBhairavaKumarikaKhandMarkDyczkowski/page/n375


Notes

उन्मनी (unmanī)

√ उद् (ud) see 2:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=183.gif

√ मा (mā) see 2 & 3:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=804.gif

नी (nī) see 2, 3, 4 & 5:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=565.gif

See also निस् (nís) written on page 543 as Nís:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=543.gif

And also Nī for Nís (in the 3rd column):

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=543.gif

See also उन्मणि (un-maṇi) “m. a gem lying on the surface”:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=193.gif

To understand the yogic context of what is implied by the word मणि (maṇí) “gem;” click this link to see the reader’s comment dated Thursday, 30 May, 2019.
Anonymous said…

A text worthy of study and of being applied tenaciously in practice.

Kevala Kumbhaka (pages 50-51):

https://archive.org/details/TheGherandaSamhitaRaiBahadurSirisaChandraVyas/page/n57

Notes

केवल (kevala):

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=309.gif

केवलिन् (kevalin):

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=310.gif

केव् (kev) see √ सेव् (sev):

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=1247.gif

अलि (ali) see 1 (N.B.* the sting [of a large black bee] alludes to the resonance of the an-āhata, the energetic linga that pierces above the skull, and the outpouring of abhiṣeka [which flows from the analogous sting of the black bee –from the energetic linga which has pierced above the yogins skull]):

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=95.gif
Anonymous said…

Sincere apology, the link to download an Adobe Pdf copy of ‘Grondin`s Interlinear Coptic/English Translation of The Gospel of Thomas’ (stated in readers comment dated Saturday, 21 September, 2019) should be:

www.gospel-thomas.net/gtbypage_112702.pdf

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