Priti Sandarbha 1.7 : The goal of all scriptures is kaivalya, i.e., priti



 Yesterday's video had no sound, so I have reposted with sound. My apologies. The transliterated Sanskrit text is below. 

Synopsis. 

This is now the actual anuccheda here, the previous six readings were only to set up this verse. This is shown by the repetition of the phrase "now the treatise on love of God is to be written." The verse that is quoted as the principal text (SB 12.13.12) for this anuccheda was previously quoted in Tattva Sandarbha 52, where it served the fundamental purpose of showing the intent of the Bhagavatam. That is again its purpose here.

The language of the verse is basically oriented towards the Advaita view, but Jiva Goswami's intent here is to show that it should be interpreted in keeping with the devotional philosophy. "This Bhāgavatam is the essence of all Vedānta philosophy" (sarva-vedānta-sāraṁ yat, ), i.e., the essence of all scriptures, and "the one ultimate attainment (prayojana) [proclaimed therein] is kaivalya (kaivalyaika-prayojanam)." 

Kaivalya basically means liberation, so it now requires some further definition. This is the full verse and the translation given in the Tattva Sandarbha 52. 

sarva-vedānta-sāraṁ yad brahmātmaikatva-lakṣaṇam 
vastv advitīyaṁ tan-niṣṭhaṁ kaivalyaika-prayojanam 

 "This Bhāgavatam is the essence of all Vedānta philosophy, because its subject matter is the Absolute Truth, which is one without a second, as characterized by the oneness [in love] of the individual living being with Brahman. The one ultimate attainment (prayojana) proclaimed in this book is kaivalya [lit., 'aloneness,' which here implies pure devotion alone unto that Supreme Truth, devoid of any extraneous element]." 

I did a bit of research to see how kaivalya has been used and commented on in the Bhāgavatam and I shall post it as a separate article. The basic meaning is given by Sridhara at 3.11.2 where it is simply glossed as aikyaṁ or oneness.

You can also look at Bhakti Sandarbha 316, where it is discussed in relation to 7.1.24. Here Jiva gives three definitions of kaivalya.   

 (1) The word kevala means pure, and its essence is kaivalya, i.e., purity. Impurity is lack of knowledge of the Absolute Reality. Therefore, only knowledge of the Absolute is purity, and so to give direct experience of the Absolute is the purpose of this scripture.

(2) Alternatively, it means the nature (svabhāva) of the Absolute 

(3) It means "the Supreme." In all these cases, the ultimate idea the all scriptures, i.e., their essence the Śrīmad Bhāgavata, is to propagate realization of the Supreme Truth in His personal form..


tad evaṁ bhagavat-prīter eva parama-puruṣārthatve samarthite sādhūktaṁ “atha prīti-sandarbho lekhya” ity-ādi | sa eṣa eva parama-puruṣārthaḥ krama-rītyā sarvopari darśayituṁ saṁdṛbhyate | 

tatrokta-lakṣaṇasya mukti-sāmānyasya śāstra-prayojanatvam āha—"sarva-vedānta-" ity-ādau "kaivalyaika-prayojanam" [bhā.pu. 12.13.12] iti | 

 kevalaḥ śuddhaḥ tasya bhāvaḥ kaivalyam | tad ekam eva prayojanaṁ parama-puruṣārthatvena pratipādyaṁ yasya, tad idaṁ śrī-bhāgavatam iti pūrva-ślokasthenānvayaḥ | doṣa-mūlaṁ hi jīvasya parama-tattva-jñānābhāva evety uktam—"bhayaṁ dvitīyābhiniveśataḥ syāt" ity-ādau, "īśād apetasya" [bhā.pu. 12.2.37] ity-ādibhiḥ | atas taj-jñānam eva śuddhatvam iti kaivalya-śabdasyātra pūrvavat tad-anubhava eva tāt-paryam | [bhayaṁ dvitīyābhiniveśataḥ syād īśād apetasya viparyayo’smṛtiḥ | tan-māyayāto budha ābhajet taṁ bhaktyaikayeśaṁ guru-devatātmā ||] 

 athavā kaivalya-śabdena paramasya svabhāva evocyate | yathā skānde— 

brahmeśānādibhir devair yat prāptuṁ naiva śakyate | 
sa yat svabhāvaḥ kaivalyaṁ sa bhavān kevalo hare || iti | 

kvacit svārthika-tad-dhitāntena kaivalya-śabdenāpi parama ucyate | yathā śrī-dattātreya-śikṣāyāṁ— 

parāvarāṇāṁ parama āste kaivalya-saṁjñitaḥ | 
kevalānubhavānanda-sandoho nirupādhikaḥ || [bhā.pu. 11.9.18] iti |  (PS 59)

tathāpy ubhayathaiva tad-anubhava eva tāt-paryam | tat-svabhāvam eva vā | tam evānubhāvayitum idaṁ śāstraṁ pravṛttam ity arthaḥ ||

Comments

Anonymous said…

कैवल्य (kaivalya) → कै (kai) + वल् (val) + य (ya)

Notes

These words describe what one experiences during आ (ā) + रोप (ropa), see:

कै (kai):

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=311.gif

वल् (val):

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=927.gif

य (ya) see 4.:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=838.gif

Further Notes

कैवल्य (kaivalya):

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=311.gif
Anonymous said…

वस्तु (vástu) → व (va) + स्तु (stu)

Some Rough Notes

वस्तु (vástu) see 2. “the one real substance or essence which has no second; the pith or substance of anything:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=932.gif

व (va) see 2. “air, wind (energy of the breath), the ocean (energy of pure consciousness as light), water (the सक्ति [sakti]/ शक्ति [śákti] energy which flows like water), an arrow (the energy which pierces like an arrow), weaving (to unite by close connection or intermixture; again, a play-on-words, see also सिव siva “m. one who sews or stitches, a sewer, stitcher (stitching, another word-play, a euphemism for the phallus in the act of sexual union):” http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=1218.gif ):”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=910.gif

स्तु (stu) see 3. “to be clotted (a solidified mass of any liquid) or conglomerated (piled up into a heap, think of energy solidified [as a Śiva lingam above the skull]); to trickle (think अभिषेक [abhi-ṣeká], the energy pouring out of the solidified energy of the Śiva lingam above the skull:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=1259.gif

There is another layer (this word is multivalent) वस्तु (vástu) → वस् (vas) + तु (tu) “to go clothed in light”:

वस् (vas) “clothed in, wearing” see 2. “to shine, grow bright; to bestow by shining upon, to cause to shine (as light)”; also see 3. “love”:

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=930.gif

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=932.gif

तु (tu) “to go:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=449.gif
Anonymous said…

N.B.* See also 8. वस् (vas) “to make firm” (which describes the energy solidified [above the skull] as a Śiva lingam):

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=933.gif

Notes

The rigid energetic Śiva lingam (above the skull) and yogic anointing of abhi-ṣeká are prerequisite to being “clothed in shining (light) prior to taking flight (तापनीय tāpanīya) to the hiraṇya-garbhá.

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