Bhakti Sandarbha 202: The two devotional proclivities and taking a Guru

Buddha giving first lecture in "Deer Park." This is at the Raman Reti Udasin Ashram in Gokul
where there is a sanctuary for deer, which has been ordered closed.

I find myself often refering to Bhakti Sandarbha 202 (as today in VMA 1.6). So, for the record, I am extracting the translation of that Anuccheda from Satyaarayana Dasaji's edition, along with his commentary, for the record. This passage is significant because it arises in the context of guru-tattva and firmly indicates that the mantra-guru is determined on the basis of one's ruci. The Anuccheda is a long one and so it has been divided in three parts, but only the second and third parts are given here.

202.2 The paths of taste and discernment

तदेवं तेषां बहुभेदेषु सत्सु तेषामेव प्रभावतारतम्येन कृपातारतम्येन भक्तिवासनाभेदतारतम्येन सत्सङ्गात् कालशैघ्र्यस्वरूपवैशिष्ट्याभ्यां भक्तिरुदयते। एवं ज्ञानिसङ्गाच्च ज्ञानं ज्ञेयम्।

Thus by associating with devotees among the various types that have been described one may be endowed with bhakti, which will manifest either quickly or after a delay and take a particular form according to the different degrees of these devotees' spiritual power, their compassion, and the individual character of their devotional mood towards Bhagavān. In the same way, jñāna or non-dual awareness manifests through the association of a jñānī, in accordance with his or her level of realization.

तत्र यद्यप्यकिञ्चना भक्तिरेवाभिधेयेति तत्कारणत्वेन तद्भक्तसङ्ग एवाभिधेये सति भक्तोऽपि स एव लक्षितव्यः, तथापि तत्तत्परीक्षार्थमेव तत्तदनुवादः क्रियते।

In this matter, though pure and unmotivated devotion is proclaimed as the abhidheya, or the means of attaining the Absolute, the association of Bhagavān’s devotees is also the abhidheya because it is the cause of this bhakti. For this reason, the devotee's characteristics must also be given. Still, just to ascertain the subtle nuances of devotees and devotion, the definitions of both will be repeated in various ways.

तत्र प्रथमं तावत् तत्तत्सङ्गाज्जातेन तत्तच्छ्रद्धातत्तत्परम्पराकथारुच्यादिना जातभगवत्साम्मुख्यस्य तत्तदनुषङ्गेनैव तत्तद्भजनीये भगवदाविर्भावविशेषे तद्भजनमार्गविशेषे च रुचिर्जायते।

First of all, by association with specific devotees, one develops a corresponding type of faith in Bhagavān and a relish for hearing about Him as He is understood in the corresponding tradition. This enables one to turn one’s awareness to Him. By further association with specific devotees, one develops a relish (ruci) for the particular form of Bhagavān worshiped by those devotees as well as for the particular path of worship they follow.

ततश्च विशेषबुभुत्सायां सत्यां तेष्वेकतोऽनेकतो वा श्रीगुरुत्वेनाश्रिताच्छ्रवणं क्रियते। तच्चोपक्रमोपसंहारादिभिरर्थावधारणम्। पुनश्चासम्भावनाविपरीतभावनाविशेषवता स्वयं तद्विचाररूपं मननमपि क्रियते।

After this, if the hunger to know more appears, one hears from one or more of those devotees, accepting them as spiritual teachers. Hearing means to understand the meaning of the scriptures through study of the six criteria that reveal their import. After this, one personally engages in reflection (manana) by deliberating on the meaning of what he has heard in order to dispel doubts and misconceptions about the knowledge received.

ततो भगवतः सर्वस्मिन्नेवाविर्भावे तथाविधोऽसौ सदा सर्वत्र विराजत इत्येवंरूपा श्रद्धा जायते। तत्रैकस्मिंस्त्वनया प्रथमजातया रुच्या सह निजाभीष्टदानसामर्थ्याद्यतिशयवत्तानिर्धारणरूपत्वेन सैव श्रद्धा समुल्लसति। तत्र यद्यप्येकत्रैवातिशयितापर्यवसानं सम्भवति, न तु सर्वत्र, तथापि केषांचित् ततो विशिष्टस्याज्ञानादन्यत्रापि तथाबुद्धिरूपा श्रद्धा सम्भवति। एवं भजनमार्गविशेषश्च व्याख्यातव्यः। तदेवं सिद्धे, ज्ञाने विज्ञानार्थं निदिध्यासनलक्षणतत्तदुपासनामार्गभेदोऽनुष्ठीयते। इत्येवं विचारप्रधानानां मार्गो दर्शितः।

He then develops faith that the particular feature of Bhagavān towards which he is attracted is present at all times and in all places, within all of Bhagavān's other manifestations. Then, along with the first attraction that was awakened in him towards one specific form of Bhagavān, this same faith swells up with a renewed conviction that this very Bhagavān is supremely competent to bestow upon him the attainment for which he aspires. Although supreme power is possible only in one form of Bhagavān, not in all, yet, due to a lack of awareness of this one special form [Svayam Bhagavān], a person may develop this type of conviction in some other form of Bhagavān.

The progression that has just been explained in regard to the development of faith in a particular form of Bhagavān applies equally towards the awakening of faith in a specific path of worship. Once one has acquired knowledge of the Absolute by thus deliberating on the import of scripture, it is necessary to realize the nature of the Absolute. This is done by carrying out the various practices of that particular path of worship, and each of these acts must be performed as a profound meditation on the nature of the Supreme Reality (nididhyāsana). This [above description summarizes] the path followed by those who are predominantly analytical (vicāra-pradhāna mārga).

रुचिप्रधानानां तु न तादृग्विचारापेक्षा जायते। किन्तु साधुसङ्गलीलाकथनश्रवणरुचिश्रद्धाश्रवणाद्यावृत्तिरूप एवासौ मार्गो, यथा—शुश्रूषोः श्रद्दधानस्य (भा. १.२.१६) इत्यादिना पूर्वं दर्शितः, सतां प्रसङ्गान् मम वीर्यसंविदः (भा. ३.२५.२२) इत्यादौ च द्रष्टव्यः।

Those who are guided by relish, however, are not dependent on this type of analytical approach. Rather, the path for them consists of associating with sādhus, cultivating the taste for hearing the pastimes of Bhagavān, awakening faith in Bhagavān and the path of worship, and then repeatedly hearing and immersing oneself in the various methods of worship. This has been pointed out already in statements such as this:

śuśrūṣoḥ śraddadhānasya vāsudeva-kathā-ruciḥ |
syān mahat-sevayā viprāḥ puṇya-tīrtha-niṣevaṇāt ||
O learned ones, by visiting or dwelling in a holy place a person gets an opportunity to associate with great devotees and to render service to them. By such service a person awakens faith and an interest in hearing narrations about Bhagavān and thus develops a taste for such narrations. (SB 1.2.16) [See Bhakti Sandarbha 11]
This path of devotion predominated by taste (ruci-pradhāna mārga) is also indicated in this verse:

satāṁ prasaṅgān mama vīrya-saṁvido
bhavanti hṛt-karṇa-rasāyanāḥ kathāḥ
taj-joṣaṇād āśv apavarga-vartmani
śraddhā-ratir-bhaktir anukramiśyati
By association with devotees, one gets an opportunity to hear discussions of My pastimes, which illustrate My prowess and act as a tonic for the ears and the heart. By listening to these pastimes, faith, attachment and devotion to Bhagavān Hari quickly manifest one after another. (SB 3.25.25)
प्रीतिलक्षणभक्तीच्छूनां तु रुचिप्रधानमार्ग एव श्रेयान्, नाजातरुचीनामिव विचारप्रधानः। यथोक्तं प्रह्लादेन—

नैते गुणा न गुणिनो महदादयो ये सर्वे मनःप्रभृतयः सह देवमर्त्याः।
आद्यन्तवन्त उरुगाय विदन्ति हि त्वाम् एवं विमृश्य सुधियो विरमन्ति शब्दात्॥
तत् तेऽर्हत्तम नमःस्तुतिकर्मपूजाः कर्म स्मृतिश्चरणयोः श्रवणं कथायाम्।
संसेवया त्वयि विनेति षडङ्गया किं भक्तिं जनः परमहंसगतौ लभेत॥ (भा. ७.९.४९-५०) इति।

For those who covet bhakti characterized by love, the path predominated by relish is superior—not the analytical path, which is for those in whom the taste for hearing has not sprouted. That those who have acquired taste do not follow the analytical path is indicated by this statement of Prahlāda:

naite guṇā na guṇino mahad-ādayo ye
sarve manaḥ prabhṛtayaḥ sahadeva-martyāḥ

ādy-antavanta urugāya vidanti hi tvām
evaṁ vivicya sudhiyo viramanti śabdāt
O Bhagavān of great renown, the constituent qualities of material nature, the predominating deities who regulate these qualities, the gross cosmic manifestation and its various elements, the gods, human beings, mind, intellect and so on, cannot understand You because all of these have a beginning and end. Reflecting on this, the wise abandon the analytical study of the words of scripture.
tat te'rhattama namaḥ stuti-karma-pūjāḥ
karma-smṛtiś caraṇayoḥ śravaṇaṁ kathāyām
saṁsevayā tvayi vineti ṣaḍ-aṅgayā kiṁ
bhaktiṁ janaḥ paramahaṁsa-gatau labheta
O most worshipful Bhagavān, service to You consists of six activities: offering obeisance, reciting prayers, rendering personal service to You, worship, remembering Your lotus feet and hearing Your pastimes. How can one obtain bhakti towards You, who are the goal of the highest order of sages, without performing these six types of service? (SB 7.9.49-50)
कर्म परिचर्या। कर्मस्मृतिर्लीलास्मरणम्। चरणयोरिति सर्वत्रान्वितं भक्तिव्यञ्जकम्।

The word karma in the second of these verses refers to rendering personal service to Bhagavān, and karma-smṛtiḥ means remembering Bhagavān’s pastimes. The word caraṇayoḥ, “in relation to Bhagavān’s feet,” is connected to all six of these activities [i.e., offering obeisance to Bhagavān’s feet, and so on], and it conveys the sense of devotion.

Commentary by Mahant Satyanarayan Das Babaji Maharaj

Sri Jiva says that there are two types of people: those who more rationally inclined and those who are more emotionally inclined. The first group follows the process predominated by deliberation (vicāra) and the second by taste (ruci). There are no black and white divisions between the two. Everybody has both tendencies, but one of them may be more prominent.

The description of the first tendency is based upon the famous statement from Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad (2.4.5): “The ātmā, i.e., Bhagavān, should be seen, heard, deliberated and meditated upon.”

The goal is to realize Bhagavān, which involves three steps. The first is hearing (śravaṇam), then deliberating upon what one has heard and clearing up all one’s doubts (mananam). Once the process and the goal are understood theoretically then one engages in spiritual practice to realize it (nididhyāsanam).

By the independent will of Bhagavān a conditioned being gets the opportunity to meet, hear from, and serve a devotee. This association implants śraddhā in that person's heart. Because of śraddhā one seeks further association. The first association comes by the will of Bhagavān or His devotee, and the second comes when he wills it himself as a result of the first association. By listening to the devotee and, if he is fortunate enough, by doing service to him, he develops a liking for hearing. This turns his awareness towards Bhagavān because the devotee only talks about Bhagavān, His form, qualities, associates, activities and abode. Then the neophyte develops an interest in the particular form of Bhagavān which is considered supreme and most lovable by that devotee. This leads him to be more firm on the specific path of bhakti followed by him. He wants to know more and follow it. Thus he formally accept a teacher and studies under him. This is the stage of śravaṇam or hearing.

After hearing he deliberates upon what he has heard. He considers if what is being taught is achievable by him. Various doubts flood his mind. He clarifies the doubts. This is the stage of mananam. By proper deliberation he understands that the world is controlled by Bhagavān who is present everywhere. The atheistic idea that everything is just happening spontaneously without any rhyme or reason is uprooted. This is the next stage of śraddhā. After this, the new devotee understands that goal of life is to realize love of Bhagavān. He gets śraddhā in the practice of bhakti. Then he desires to learn the process and seeks a śikṣā guru so he can begin his spiritual practice seriously.

The way one progresses primarily depends upon two things, one’s effort and the offenses one is carrying from the past. If the aspirant is carrying many offenses from this and previous lives then progress will be slow even if he endeavors hard. If the heart is clean then there will be no delay in reaching bhāva. Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī has given a very beautiful description of the various stages on the path in his book Mādhurya-kādambinī.

The path of taste (ruci) is straightforward. Such a person gets sādhu-saṅga and hears the pastimes of Bhagavān. He immediately becomes attracted to it. This instills śraddhā in his heart. Then the śraddhā impels him to hear more and more. This leads him to accept a guru and follow spiritual practice.

Here it should be understood that it is not that the devotee on this path does not know anything about Bhagavān and is only interested in hearing stories. He also has knowledge about Bhagavān and His creation, but his taste is for hearing about the wonderful pastimes of Bhagavān with his devotees. The first devotees do not have such a taste for bhakti. They take to it because they understand that this is the best thing prescribed in the śāstra. They are called vaidhī bhaktas. The second class of people have natural liking for bhakti and thus they do not take to bhakti because of any śāstric injunction.

202.3 The śravaṇa-guru and śikṣā guru

तदेतदुभयस्मिन्नपि तद्भजनविधिशिक्षागुरुः प्राक्तनः श्रवणगुरुरेव भवति, तथाविधस्य प्राप्तत्वात्। प्राक्तनानां बहुत्वेऽपि प्रायस्तेष्वेवान्यतरोऽभिरुचितः, पूर्वस्मादेव हेतोः। श्रीमन्त्रगुरुस्त्वेक एव निषेत्स्यमानत्वाद्बहूनाम्।

On both of these paths—that predominated by taste and that predominated by scriptural analysis—the person who was the śravaṇa-guru, or the teacher from whom one began hearing, becomes the śikṣā guru, or the teacher who guides one along the path of bhajana. This is natural because such a person is already available to the student. Although in the beginning there may be many śravaṇa-gurus, a person generally accepts one among them as his instructing guru in the matter of bhajana, and this is due to his individual taste. For the same reason, there can be only one mantra-guru, or the teacher who initiates the disciple by mantra recitation into the worship of Bhagavān. This is further corroborated by the fact that scripture forbids one to accept more than one mantra-guru.

अथात्र प्रमाणानि—तत्र तदाविर्भावविशेषे रुचिः—"महापुरुषमभ्यर्चेन् मूर्त्याभिमतयात्मनः" (भा. ११.३.४८) इत्यादौ श्रीमदाविर्होत्रादिनाभिप्रेता।

Now we shall present evidence to support all these points. Attraction towards a particular form of Bhagavān is described by the sage Āvirhotra:

labdhvānugraha ācāryāt tena sandarśitāgamaḥ
mahā-puruṣam abhyarcen mūrtyābhimatayātmanaḥ
One who has obtained the grace of the ācārya and has learnt from him the method of worship, should worship Bhagavān in the form to which he or she is attracted. (SB 11.3.48)
वैदिकस्तान्त्रिको मिश्र इति मे त्रिविधो मखः।
त्रयाणामीप्सितेनैव विधिना मां समर्चयेत्॥ (भा. ११.२७.७)

इत्यादौ श्रीभगवताभिप्रेता।

In this statement the devotee’s liking for a specific type of service is also implied. The same thing is indicated by Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa:

vaidikas tāntriko miśra iti me tri-vidho makhaḥ
trayāṇām īpsitenaiva vidhinā māṁ samarcayet
There are three types of systems for worshiping Me—Vedic, Tantric and mixed. According to one’s personal liking, one should duly worship Me by adopting one of these three systems. (SB 11.27.7)
अथ श्रवणगुरुमाह—
तस्माद्गुरुं प्रपद्येत जिज्ञासुः श्रेय उत्तमम्।
शाब्दे परे च निष्णातं ब्रह्मण्युपशमाश्रयम्॥ (भा. ११.३.२१)

Now the characteristics of a śravaṇa-guru are given:

tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam
śābde pare ca niṣṇātaṁ brahmaṇy upaśamāśrayam
Therefore, one desirous of knowing the ultimate welfare should approach a preceptor who is well versed in the Vedas, who has realized the Absolute Reality and who has thus become the abode of peace. (SB 11.3.21)
शाब्दे ब्रह्मणि वेदे तात्पर्यविचारेण, परे ब्रह्मणि भगवदादिरूपाविर्भावे तु अपरोक्षानुभवेन निष्णातं तथैव निष्ठां प्राप्तम्।

[The word niṣṇātam, “deeply versed in, and experienced,” is an adjective describing the quality of the preceptor whom one should seek out.] The word niṣṇātam refers to niṣṭhā, or “fixity,” [and the verse describes two things in which the preceptor has attained such fixity—namely, sound revelation and the transcendence.] The word brahmaṇi, “the Absolute,” refers both to śabda, “the Vedas,” and para, “the transcendence.” So by deliberation on the import of the Vedas, he has become deeply versed in the Absolute in the form of sound revelation. And by direct experience of the transcendence, He has realized Bhagavān in his various manifestations.

यथोक्तं श्रीपुरञ्जनोपाख्याद्युपसंहारे श्रीनारदेन—
स वै प्रियतमश्चात्मा यतो न भयमण्वपि।
इति वेद स वै विद्वान् यो विद्वान् स गुरुर्हरिः॥ (भा. ४.२९.५१) इति।

॥११.३॥ श्रीप्रबुद्धो निमिम्॥२०२॥

Śrī Nārada refers to a preceptor of this quality in his concluding words from the narration of King Purañjana:

sa vai priyatamaś cātmā yato na bhayam aṇv api
iti veda sa vai vidvān yo vidvān sa gurur hariḥ
On the path of worship of the Supreme Bhagavān there is not the least trace of fear, because Bhagavān is most dear and one’s very Self. One who knows this is a learned person, and he is guru. Indeed, he is Hari. (SB 4.29.51)
Here ends the Anuccheda.

Commentary by Mahant Satyanarayan Das Babaji Maharaj

Śrī Jīva next makes a distinction between the śravaṇa-guru and the śikṣā-guru. Usually they are the same person. First one hears about tattva from a devotee (śravaṇa-guru) and later on chooses him as his śikṣā-guru to learn how to practice bhakti. This śikṣā-guru is same as the dīkṣā-guru because śikṣā here is related to bhajana and not just philosophical education. Bhajana-śikṣā naturally requires that one has accepted dīkṣā. There is common belief among certain group of devotees that the śikṣā and dīkṣā gurus are different. On the bhakti-mārga, however, they are usually the same person. In some special circumstances they may be different, as was the case with Śrī Narottama Dāsa Thākura, Śrīnivāsa Ācārya and Śyamānanda Prabhu. They all studied under Jīva Gosvāmī but had their individual dīkṣā-gurus.

Thus, the śravaṇa-guru is what people mostly call the śikṣā-guru and the śikṣā-guru is what people commonly call the dīkṣā-guru. The purpose of dīkṣā is in śikṣā, as Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī says,

guru-padāśrayas tasmāt kṛṣṇa-dīkṣādi-śikṣaṇam
Therefore, one should take shelter of a genuine guru, take dīkṣā in the Kṛṣṇa mantra and study from him about Kṛṣṇa. (BRS 1.2.74)

Therefore Śrī Jīva writes, "The person who was the śravaṇa guru, or the teacher from whom one begins hearing, becomes the śikṣā guru, or the teacher who guides one along the path of bhajana."

This is the age of internet and “Do It Yourself,” and so people may think that they can get spiritual knowledge on their own. But because of the nature of bhakti as dependent on the grace of the devotees, it is vital to have a qualified guru, otherwise one's progress will be severely inhibited and one will not be successful in achieving the ultimate goal.

Often the question is raised, “How to recognize a genuine guru?” Sage Prabuddha gives three qualifications of the genuine guru. The first is that he will be well versed in śāstra, śābde brahmaṇi niṣṇātam. This is only possible if the guru has studied himself from a qualified guru because nobody can become expert in śāstra by self study. It is thus said,

  • “Only the education received from an ācārya leads one to the goal.” (Bṛhad 4.9.3);
  • “Even a learned person should not try to acquire knowledge of Brahman independently [without a guru]” (Śāṅkara-bhāṣya, MuṇḍakaU 1.2.12);
  • “One who has a guru knows the truth.” (Chāndogya 6.14.2) ;
  • “Nobody can get knowledge of the Absolute, bhakti or true renunciation by one’s own effort.” (SB 3.7.39) ;
  • “A living being who is conditioned by beginningless ignorance cannot know the Self by oneself. A knower of the Truth can impart knowledge to him.” (SB 11.22.10)

This implies that one’s guru must be a part of a lineage or paramparā to be genuine. For example to be good professor of a subject, one must have attended an accredited institution of learning.

The second qualification is that the guru must have experience of the Reality, pare brahmaṇi niṣṇātam. If he is not experienced himself, he cannot bestow such experience on his student. It is easier for a neophyte to check if the guru satisfies the first condition, but it is impossible to know the second because he does not have much experience himself. Nevertheless, one can take some guidelines from the preceding sections where the characteristics of various types of devotees have been analyzed.

The third characteristic is that the guru is himself fixed on the path. He is not just a teacher who gives lectures without adhering to the principles of bhakti. This means that he must be well behaved, free of material desires, lust and greed. He should not be materially motivated or having exploitative tendencies. This will happen naturally if he has the second qualification.

Acccording to Śrī Nārada, such a guru is Bhagavān Himself (4.29.51). The reason for this is that it is Bhagavān who manifests Himself in the form of guru to liberate a jīva. Therefore, Kṛṣṇa says, “Know the ācārya to be Me” (11.17.27).

Bhakti Sandarbha 202: The two devotional proclivities and taking a Guru
Bhakti Sandarbha 200 : The Intermediate Devotee Renounces Karma
Bhakti Sandarbha 199 : Divisions of Devotees on the Basis of their Spiritual Practice
Bhakti Sandarbha 198 : Bhagavān is Bound to the Heart of an Uttama Bhāgavata
Bhakti Sandarbha 191-197 : More Characteristics of the Uttama Bhagavata
Bhakti Sandarbha 190 : Definition of a Neophyte Devotee


Anonymous said…

Thank you for writing this blog posting Jagadananda Das; my person has thought many times of coming to Vṛndāvana and learning from the good association of your company.


See रुचि (rúci), and 2. Rúc, f. light, lustre, brightness, splendour, beauty, loveliness; appearance, resemblance; pleasure, delight, liking, wish, desire:

and रुच् (ruc) to cause to shine; to enlighten, illuminate, make bright; to shine bright:


From relaschier (re- +‎ laschier):

From laschier, from Vulgar Latin lassicāre, laxicāre, from Latin laxō:

भगवन् (bhagavan):

भगवत् (bhágavat), see also भग (bhága):

भ (bha) √ भा (bhā):

ग (ga) N.B. √ गै (gai) and √ गम् (gam):

वन् (van):

श्रद्धा (śraddhā')

श्रावण (śrāvaṇa):

मनन (manána):
Anonymous said…
When translating the term अवधूत (ava-dhūta) think अभिषेक (abhi-ṣeká):


अवधूत (ava-dhūta), अवधू (ava-√ dhū):

अव (áva):

अवकृऋ (ava- √ kṝ):

Ava- √ 1. kṛī –kirati to pour out or down, spread, scatter; to spill one’s semen virile; to shake off, throw off, leave; tp bestrew, pour upon, cover with, fill; to extend in different directions, disperse, pass away:

धूत (dhūtá ), see also धू (dhū):

To shake, agitated (said of the Soma= 'rinsed,' SV. dhauta), cause to tremble, to shake down (fruits) from a tree, to shake off, remove, liberate one's self from; to fan, kindle (a fire); to shake or move violently, to shake off or down, to fan or kindle

See धव् (dhav) cl. 1. Ā. dhavate, "to run, flow," RV. [ Cf. 2. dhan and 1. dhāv Gk. θεF in θέω, θεύσομαι, θούς. ]

Ancient Greek θέω from earlier θεϝ- ‎(thew-‎), possibly from a Proto-Indo-European *dʰew- ‎(“to run, flow”‎):


Jagadananda das - Guru tattva:
Anonymous said…
Yes, siddha- deha is real.


सिद्ध (siddha):

देह (deha):

दिह् (dih) “to anoint, smear, plaster; increase, accumulate; to wish to anoint one's self”.

Intens. dedihyate, dedegdhi. [ Fr. orig. dhigh, cf. θιγγάνω, ἒ-θιγ-ον, τεῖχος, τοῖχος ; Lat. fingo, figulus, figura ; Goth. deigan, gadigis ; O. E. dāh ; Eng. dough ; Germ. ṭeig.]:
yajñá-sā'dh said…
In relation to सिद्ध (siddha ), see also:

साध् (sādh)

1 ( connected with √ 2. sidh ), cl. 1. P. Ā. sā'dati , °te

accord. to Dhātup. xxvi, 71 and xxvii, 16, cl. 4. sādhyati , cl. 5. sādhnoti ( in JaimBr. also sadhnoti

pf. sasādha

aor. asātsīt

fut. sāddhā, sātsyati

inf. sāddhum, in later language sādhitum

Ved. inf. sádhase, q.v. ), to go straight to any goal or aim, attain an object, to be successful, succeed, prosper RV.

to being straight to an object or end, further, promote, advance, accomplish, complete, finish ib.

to submit or agree to, obey ib.

( sādhyati ) to be completed or accomplished Dhātup. : Caus. sādhayati ( m. c. also °te

aor. asīṣadhat

Ved. also sīṣadhati, °dhaḥ, °dhema, °dhātu

Pass. sādhyate MBh. etc. ), to straighten, make straight ( a path ) RV.

to guide straight or well, direct or bring to a goal ib.

to master, subdue, overpower, conquer, win, win over RV. etc.

to summon, conjure up ( a god or spirit ) Kathās

( in law ) to enforce payment, recover ( a debt ), collect ( taxes ) Mn. Yājñ. etc.

to subdue a disease, set right, heal, cure Suśr.

to bring to an end or conclusion, complete, make perfect, bring about, accomplish, effect, fulfil, execute, practice with vākyam, ' to execute any one's [ gen. ] order '

with naiṣkarmyam ', to practise inactivity '

with marum, ' to practise abstinence '

with mantram, ' to practise the recitation of spells ' ) GṛŚrS. Mn. MBh. etc.

to attain one's object, be successful MBh. iii, 1441

to produce, make, render ( two acc. ) Śak. BhP.

to establish a truth, substantiate, prove, demonstrate Tattvas. Sarvad

to make ready, prepare MBh.

to gain, obtain, acquire, procure ŚBr. etc.

to find out ( by calculation ), Gaiṇt

to grant, bestow, yield MBh. Kāv. etc.

to put or place in ( loc. ) BhP.

to set out, proceed, go ( in dram. accord. to Sāh. = √ gam ) MBh. Kāv. etc. : Desid. of Caus. siṣādhayisati or sisādhayirhati, to desire to establish or prove Sāh. Sarvad. : Desid. siṣātsati Gr. : Intens., sāsādhyate, sāsdidhi ib:


See also:

साढृ (sā'ḍhṛ) and साढ (sāḍhá):

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