Sunday, April 26, 2015

Gita Sapta-shloki, Verse 5

Gītā sapta-ślokī 5

|| 15.1 ||

ऊर्ध्वमूलमधःशाखमश्वत्थं प्राहुरव्ययम्।
छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यस्तं वेद स वेदवित्॥

ūrdhva-mūlam adhaḥ-śākham aśvatthaṁ prāhur avyayam |
chandāṁsi yasya parṇāni yas taṁ veda sa veda-vit ||

[yasya] mūlaṁ ūrdhvaṁ asti, śākhā adhaḥ sthitā [asti], yasya ca [aśvatthasya] parṇāni chandāṁsi santi, [tam] aśvatthaṁ avyayam [iti] prāhuḥ [śrutayaḥ] | yas taṁ veda, sa veda-vid bhavati |

  • ūrdhva-mūlaṁ = “with the roots above” (bahuvrīhi-samāsa) yasya mūlāni ūrdhve sthitāni santi, tam.
  • adhaḥ-śākhaṁ = “with the branches below”. These two adjectives describe the tree, so agree in number, case and gender.
  • aśvatthaṁ (acc. sing.) the banyan tree ( na śvo’pi sthātety aśvatthas taṁ kṣaṇa-pradhvaṁsinam)
  • prāhuḥ = “they say” (kathayanti) There is no subject, but the commentaries add śrutayaḥ and refer to a verse in the Kaṭha Upaniṣad (2.3.1):
ūrdhva-mūlo’vāk-śākha eṣo’śvatthaḥ sanātanaḥ |
  • avyayaṁ = (adj.) inexhaustible, not spent (vyaya-rahitam)
  • chandāṁsi = the Vedic hymns (n. pl. nom., the singular is chandas)
  • yasya parṇāni = whose leaves (chandāṁsi cchādanād ṛg-yajuḥ-sāma-lakṣaṇāni yasya saṁsāra-vṛkṣasya parṇānīva patrāṇi)
  • veda = 3rd pers. sing. of verb vid. “knows”
  • yas taṁ veda sa veda-vit = “who knows this knows the Veda”

The Aśvattha tree of this world has its roots upwards and its branches downward. Its leaves are the Vedic hymns. One who knows this knows the Veda.


1 comment:

Anonymous said...


सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि सन्निविष्टो मत्तः स्मृर्तिर्ज्ञानपोहनम् च।

वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्यो वेदान्तकृद्धेदविदेव चाहम्॥


sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo mattaḥ smṛrtirjñānapohanam ca

vedaiśca sarvairahameva vedyo vedāntakṛddhedavideva cāham.