Priti Sandarbha 5.10(a) : Jaḍa Bharata Establishes the Paramārtha

I split this recording in two as I noticed a few need editorial changes that needed to be made. I will include them

5.10 Jaḍa Bharata Establishes the Paramārtha

tad evaṁ pūrva-pakṣān niṣidhya uttara-pakṣaṁ sthāpayitum upakrāntam ekena—

In this way after refuting all the opposing views, Jaḍa Bharata prepares to establish the conclusive view with the following verse:

tasmāt śreyāṁsy aśeṣāṇi nṛpaitāni na saṁśayaḥ |
paramārthas tu bhūpāla saṅkṣepāc chrūyatāṁ mama || [vi.pu. 2.14.28] iti |

There is undoubtedly no end to all these auspicious things [but they are not the ultimate goal]. Now hear from me in brief what is the ultimate goal, O King. (VP 2.14.28)

śreyāṁsi paramārtha-sādhanāni | paramārtha-nirdeśas trayeṇoktaḥ—

"These auspicious things" (śreyāṁsi) means those processes that lead to the ultimate goal. He gives an indication of the ultimate goal in the following three verses::

eko vyāpī samaḥ śuddho nirguṇaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ |
janma-vṛddhy-ādi-rahita ātmā sarva-gato’vyayaḥ ||
para-jñānamayo’sadbhir nāma-jāty-ādibhir vibhuḥ |
na yogavān na yukto’bhūn naiva pārthiva yokṣyati ||
tasyātma-para-deheṣu sato’py ekamayaṁ hi yat |
vijñānaṁ paramārtho’sau dvaitino’tathya-darśinaḥ || [vi.pu. 2.14.29-31] iti |

That which is one, all pervading, equanimous, pure, free of the guṇas, beyond the material nature, free of birth, growth and so on, the Self, omnipresent, is imperishable, full of supreme consciousness, opulent, does not have nor ever had a false name, class, and so on, nor will it ever have them in the future. O King, realization of the unicity of that Self, though it exists in one's own body as well as in those of others, is the supreme goal. Dualists do not have a proper understanding of this. (VP 2.14.29-31)

ekaḥ, na tu jīvā ivāneke | jvālā-visphūliṅgeṣv agnir iva sva-śaktiṣu sva-kāryeṣu sarveṣu vyāpnotīti vyāpī | sarva-gata ity anena jīva iva nākhaṇḍe dehe prabhāvenaiva vyāpīti jñāpitam | jīva-jñānād api paraṁ yaj jñānaṁ tan-mayaḥ, tat-prakāśa-pradhānaḥ | asadbhir iti viśeṣaṇāt bhagavad-rūpe prakāśye’pi sadbhiḥ svarūpa-siddhair eva nāmādibhir yogavān bhavatīti vijñāpitam |

"One" (ekaḥ) means [He is] not a multiplicity like the living entities. Just like the fire in the sparks of the flame, He pervades all His potencies as well as His creations and thus He is pervading (vyāpī). "Omnipresent" (sarva-gataḥ, lit. "gone everywhere") means that unlike a jīva he does not pervade the complete body merely by His influence [being situated in one place, as in the previously given example of haricandana]. "Full of supreme knowledge" (para-jñānamayaḥ) means His knowledge is superior even to that of a jīva. He is predominated by its light. By the adjective "false" (asadbhiḥ) it is informed that even when Bhagavān’s true form becomes manifest He has a name, etc., which are true and part of His own nature.


After considering these various possibilities of puruṣārtha, Jaḍa Bharata speaks about the supreme puruṣārtha. The abovementioned options are good but cannot be the ultimate puruṣārtha. The ultimate puruṣārtha is that reality which exists in all and yet is one; It is not many like the jīvas. It pervades the whole creation, which is a manifestation of Its potency. Pervasion does not mean that It exists in one place only and spreads Its influence like the light of a bulb. It exists everywhere, sarvagataḥ. The name, form and qualities of The Absolute are not asat or material. They are part of His svarūpa. This was discussed in Bhagavat Sandarbha. He exists in all as the Paramātmā yet He is one. To experience Him is the puruṣārtha. The reason for this is that such an experience is eternal, it is the recommended goal of life, and this experience contains all other experiences such as experience of the self, union of self with Brahman. In Tattva, Bhagavat and Paramātma Sandarbhas it has been explained that the one Tattva manifests as Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān. Brahman is the unqualified aspect of Bhagavān. Experience of Bhagavān contains the experience of Brahman. Thus experience of Bhagavān is the ultimate goal, puruṣārtha. Of the various forms of Bhagavān, Kṛṣṇa is the Svayaṁ Bhagavān. Thus experiencing Him is the real puruṣārtha. He is the Advaya Tattva proclaimed in Śruti statements such as ekam eva advitīyam.

The oneness of this reality is spoken by Jaḍa Bharata. The air is one, but when it flows into the different holes of a flute, it gives rise to the different notes of the scale, which are seven in number beginning with ṣaḍaja. Similarly the Absolute Reality is one but manifests in many ways. His jīva potency also manifests in a variety of ways by the influence of past karma.


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