Saturday, August 12, 2017

100 Useful Terms from Hari-nama-cintamani

abhidheya—Literally “what is to be defined.” The second of three aspects of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology: what must be done. One who understands the principles of sambandha (q.v.) experiences a moral imperative to act on that knowledge. This is devotional service in all its aspects, or as in HNC 3.18, nāmānuśīlana, “the cultivation of the Holy Name.” (ch. 2)

adhikāra—(1) aptitude, inclination or tendency; (2) qualification; (3) rights, ownership, entitlement; (4) authority (HNC 15). The adhikāra for devotional service is explained in Bhajana-rahasya 1.2.14-15.

adhikārī—(1) One qualified for a particular spiritual path. (2) A person authorized to act on behalf of someone else.

ājñā—“order, permission”; The seventh of the eleven aspects of the spiritual identity. From Jaiva Dharma, p. 592: “Orders are of two kinds: nitya (regular) and naimittika (occasional). The merciful sakhi orders you to engage in a certain regular (nitya) service, which you must execute without fail whenever needed throughout the day. Sometimes, the sakhi may tell you to perform some other service according to needs that may arise at the moment. These are naimittika orders. These too should be carefully carried out.”

ālambana—Literally “prop, support.” One of the fundamental ingredients for rasa; a subcategory of the vibhāvas. In traditional Sanskrit poetics, it refers to the persons in the play or poem who are the beloved object (viṣaya) and the character whose love is the principal subject of description (āśraya). In devotional rasa, it refers to Krishna as the object, and the devotee as subject.

anartha—“contamination, obstacle”. The term derives from artha “value”, i.e., a “non-value.” I have often left this word untranslated. On the fourth stage of devotional advancement, the various obstacles to spiritual progress, such as one’s past karma, other desires, etc., manifest. These are fully explained in Bhajana-rahasya 2.7ff.

anusmṛti—constant recollection; also elsewhere called dhruvānusmṛti. Jiva Goswami refers to Ramanuja’s commentary on Vs. 1.1.1. HNC 15.93.

āpana-daśā—The stage of appropriation. The stage in bhāva-sādhana where one makes the spiritual identity one’s own. Also called bhāvāpana-daśā and svarūpa-siddhi. From Jaiva Dharma (602): “First chant the Holy Name with enthusiasm. Then add a feeling of ownership to this enthusiasm. Then add a feeling of intimacy to this sense of ownership. Then, as your attitude becomes purified, you will come to the stage where you fully appropriate the eleven aspects of your spiritual identity, or bhāvāpana-daśā. Throughout the stage of remembering, one has only superimposed the spiritual identity on himself. At the stage of appropriation, however, pure identification with the spiritual body is attained.”

artha-pravṛtti—A term used by Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Thakur to mean a positive engagement in meditation on Krishna, in distinction to anartha-nivṛtti, which is the work one does on eliminating the obstacles and negative elements of one’s character in devotional practice.

asat-tṛṣṇā—“hankering for the impermanent.” One of the anarthas described in HNC 3.13 and Bhajana-rahasya 2.9: “Inauspicious desires for this-worldly or next-worldly pleasures, mystic powers and liberation are the four kinds of asat-tṛṣṇā.”

āśraya-tattva— An eternal associate of the Lord who is the divine shelter principle for the conditioned souls. The jiva must take shelter of a rāgānugā devotee in his specific rasa to enter the eternal pastimes of the Lord.

āśraya-vigraha—Radharani, the ultimate source of all devotion and therefore the original “reservoir of love” for Krishna.

aṣṭa-kālīya-līlā—“pastimes in the eight parts of the day; the Lord’s daily cycle of pastimes; or circadian pastimes.” According to Bhaktivinoda Thakur, this is one of the aspects of bhāva-tattva. Outlines of this līlā can be found in the Sanat-kumāra-saṁhitā, which is quoted in full in Jaiva Dharma and Caitanya-śikṣāmṛta, and in the Smaraṇa-maṅgala-stotra, which is given as the last verse of each chapter of Bhajana-rahasya, and in Saṅkalpa-kalpa-druma.

audāsīnya—“indifference, apathy” The first of the three kinds of carelessness in chanting. See HNC 12.

bahirmukha—Literally, “face outside.” Used for one who is “facing away from” or has “turned his back” on Krishna. Other translations: disinterested, estranged, excluded, worldly minded, extroverted, etc. Synonym, vimukha. The opposite is antarmukha (“introverted”) or –unmukha (“turned towards”), as in kṛṣṇonmukha, bhajanonmukha, sevonmukha, etc.

bhajana—This is often translated as “worship,” but this translation is fairly inadequate. It in fact indicates direct devotional service, but particularly as manifest through meditative chanting of the Holy Names.

bhajana-naipuṇya— “Expertise in bhajan means quickly removing anarthas by diligent practice and through the blessings of the spiritual master.” (sādhana-yogenācārya-prasādena ca tūrṇaṁ tad-apanayanam eva bhajana-naipuṇyam, Āmnāya-sūtra 75).

bhakti—Devotion; the affective path to realizing the Supreme Truth; the constitutional function of the living being to serve Krishna. Bhakti is of three types: sādhanā-bhakti, bhāva-bhakti and prema-bhakti (q.v.).

bhāva—(1) state, condition; (2) emotion, feeling, mood; (3) the first level of spiritual perfection, at which stage one’s relation with Krishna is firmly established (bhāva-bhakti); (4) the different attitudes in relation with Krishna (sthāyi-bhāvas, q.v.) as well as some of the other ingredients in the makeup of rasa (vyabhicāri-bhāvas, sāttvika-bhāvas, q.v.) (HNC 15.28); (5) the eleven aspects of the siddha-deha (ekādaśa-bhāva, q.v.). (6) “thought” = bhāvanā.

The word bhāva derives from the verb “to be or become”; its basic meaning is thus “state.” Since this can be a state of being or a state of emotions, the word can also be translated as “feeling” or “emotion.” This is the usual understanding when we talk about reaching the spiritual level called bhāva (Bhajana-rahasya 1.3.1), at which stage one is said to first experience involuntary ecstatic symptoms (sāttvikas). Thus some translate bhāva as ecstasy. However, when Bhaktivinoda Thakur speaks about the bhāva-mārga (q.v.) or bhāvāpana-daśā or bhāva-sādhanā, or nija-bhāva (“one’s own bhāva”), he is refering to the eternal spiritual identity. There is a clear connection between these two:

The stage of bhāva is clearly identified with rati by Rupa Goswami. Thus, attaining one’s spiritual identity in svarūpa-siddhi is (i.e. āpana-daśā is simultaneously bhāva.). Thus bhāva-sādhanā means the specific cultivation of one’s spiritual identity.

bhāva-mārga—“the path of cultivating one’s spiritual identity” (Others have translated as “the path of ecstasy, or ecstatic love”). In Caitanya-śikṣāmṛta (p.314), Bhaktivinoda also uses the term bhāvanā-mārga, “the path of contemplation” where he defines bhāvanā as siddha-deha-bhāvanā: “While still in this body, the practitioner serves in Krishna’s daily pastimes in his mind and, upon arriving at the point of svarūpa-siddhi, identifies completely with this spiritual identity.” He then goes on to explain how to think of that body. Synonym: bhāva-sādhanā, “cultivating the spiritual identity.”

bhāvāpana-daśā—See āpana-daśā.

bhāva-sevā—“mental service.” HNC chapter 14.

bhāva-tattva—Bhaktivinoda Thakur divides into two categories : the sādhaka’s ekādaśa-bhāva and kṛṣṇa-līlā. The first of these is related to the process, the latter to the goal.

dhāraṇā—(1) The sixth of the eight parts of the Patanjali yoga system. (2) The second of the stages of smaraṇa on the bhāva-mārga. “self-reminding.” On this stage one works at attaining steadiness in remembering. HNC 15.93.

dhruvānusmṛti—See anusmṛti.

dhyāna—“meditation.” The sixth of the eight parts of the Patanjali yoga system and third of the five stages of smaraṇa on the bhāva-mārga. See HNC 15.93.

ekādaśa-bhāva—The eleven aspects of the devotee’s spiritual form, in which she performs mental service to the Divine Couple. These are described in chapter 15, and are originally found in a verse in Gopal Guru Goswami’s Paddhati. For supplementary descriptions, one can look to Caitanya-śikṣāmṛta, p. 315ff.

guṇa—“quality”; (1) the three qualities or modes of material nature: passion (rajas), goodness (sattva) and ignorance (tamas). (2) the virtues or qualities of the Lord, which are progressively revealed to the sadhaka through the Holy Name. (3) In Jaiva Dharma (p. 592), Bhaktivinoda Thakur gives this as an alternative to the sixth bhāva of the ekādaśa bhāva: “In order to perform your specific service, you will need expertise in various skills and talents, as well as appropriate personal qualities and garments. The spiritual master will indicate to you what these are.”

hṛdaya-daurbalya—“weakness of heart.” One of the four kinds of anartha mentioned in HNC 3.13 and Bhajana-rahasya 2.11. Includes trivial attachments, fault-finding, envy, and the desire for personal aggrandizement.

jāḍya—“lethargy, sloth.” One of the three categories of inattentiveness. See HNC 12.

jāta rati = bhāva daśā. I have translated as stage of ecstasies. Prema as stage of ecstatic love. Stage of spiritual emotion.

jīve dayā—Compassion for all living beings. Bhaktivinoda wrote about his initiation. “When my spiritual master came and performed the initiation rituals, I became cheerful. From that day on the sin of meat eating vanished from my heart and I began to feel a little compassion toward all beings.”

kaivalya—“aloneness, perfect isolation; absolute unity.” The name given by the Jains and yogis to the state of liberation (see Yoga-sūtra 2.25, 3.50, 3.55). It refers to the state of the individual soul when separated from all material conditioning and situated in perfect isolation (svarūpa-pratiṣṭhā—Yoga-sūtra 4.34).

kāma—(1) “desire, lust”; (2) Eros, Cupid, the god of love; (3) sensual pleasure, i.e. the third of the four goals of human life (See puruṣārtha.). This term is usually limited to material sensual or sexual desire, but is also used to refer to the transcendental erotic love manifested in Krishna’s Vrindavan pastimes, where love only takes the appearance of lusty desire. (See Bhajana-rahasya 1.2.285.)

kaniṣṭha adhikārī—A person on the lowest level of eligibility for devotional service; “one whose faith is weak” (Bhajana-rahasya 1.2.19).

kaniṣṭha vaiṣṇava—A neophyte on the devotional path. One who has a purely sectarian mentality, whose accepts the need to serve Krishna, but is unable to recognize His devotees or discriminate between them and non-devotees. See SB 11.2.47 and HNC 4, note 19.

krama—step, in the sense of a step-by-step program. “procedure, gradual path” krame krame means “gradually.”

laukikī śraddhā—“conventional faith.” i.e. faith that is grounded in social convention rather than knowledge of the scriptures, etc. See HNC 3.57.

līlā-smaraṇa—the practice of remembering Krishna’s pastimes, especially in their aṣṭa-kālīya form.

liṅga-deha—“The subtle body.” Liṅga literally means “characteristic sign.” The subtle body contains the subtle aspects of the individual being—his desires and conditioning as well as his accumulated karma. It undergoes changes and evolves, and does not dissipate with the death of the gross body, only coming to an end when the soul’s material condition comes to an end.

lobha—“greed, intense longing, yearning.” This, rather than intellectual conviction or sense of obligation, is the qualification for engaging in rāgānugā bhakti. Jaiva Dharma (599): “When one reaches this particular stage of spiritual advancement, it is absolutely necessary to listen to Hari katha in the proper sequence, hearing the nitya-līlā separately from the naimittika. By so doing, the beauty of Krishna’s pastimes becomes evident and the tendency to engage in rāgānugā bhakti arises in the heart of the hearer. The hearer then thinks, ‘Oh! How wonderful is Subala’s mood of friendship! I would like to serve Krishna in the same mood as he!’ Such a tendency is called lobha.”

madhyama adhikārī—One with the intermediate qualifications for devotional practice, i.e. “one who has limited knowledge of the scriptures, but nevertheless possesses faith.” (Bhajana-rahasya 1.2.18).

madhyama-vaiṣṇava—“the intermediate Vaishnava” described in SB 11.2.44: characterized by four behaviors: love for God, friendship with devotees, compassion for the suffering innocent, and indifference to the atheistic. See HNC chapter 4. Note 20.

mañjarī—lit. “flowerbud.” The name given to a class of Radharani’s friends or sakhis, whose affection for Radha exceeds their devotion to even Krishna, who pride themselves in serving Radharani and organizing and elaborating the loving pastimes of the Divine Couple. They are somewhat younger than Radharani’s other friends, usually between 10 and 12 years old. Rupa Manjari is chief amongst them.

mantra-dhyāna-mayī—Krishna’s pastimes when manifested as a “still picture,” where Krishna and His intimate associates assemble. See HNC 15.45.

markaṭa-vairāgya—“monkey renunciation”; the false renunciation of someone who adopts the dress of a monk while still harboring desires to enjoy sense gratification. The monkey wears no clothes, has no home and eats only fruits and roots, yet it seizes any chance to engage in sexual activity or other sense gratificatory activity. This is the source of the term. See HNC 4.28 and 9.35. From CC 2.16.278.

nāma—Lit. “name.” (1) The Holy Name; (2) One’s name in the siddha-deha, i.e. the third of the eleven aspects of that identity. In Jaiva Dharma, Gopal Guru Goswami states: “After hearing about the activities of the gopis, you develop an attraction for a particular service. The name of the maidservant who is perfectly suited to that service is your name. The name your spiritual master gives you after examining your tendencies is your name eternally. The beautiful girls of Vraja will delight in addressing you by that name.”

nāmābhāsa—Namabhasa. “the semblance”facsimile of the Holy Name” An ābhāsa is like a blurred image. Other translations include “shadow” and “reflection” of the Holy Name. These two words, however, have closer corresponding words in Bengali, chāyā and pratibimba, both of which are used to describe particular kinds of nāmābhāsa. Therefore “semblance” is the best translation. Sarvabhavana has also translated as “the unclarified name.” It is of four kinds, saṅketa, parihāsa, stobha and helā (q.v.), which progressively weaken the effects of the Holy Name. See HNC 3.38 and Jaiva Dharma, chapter 25.

pālya-dāsī—The last of the eleven aspects of the siddha-deha. According to Dhyana Chandra, this refers to the sense of complete surrender to Lalita or another of the intimate friends of Radharani. In Jaiva Dharma (p. 594), Bhaktivinoda Thakur cites Vraja-vilāsa-stava (29) as an example of this bhāva: “May Lalita Devi, who is flooded with the juices of intense love, who has developed a mood of boldness and confidence out of deep affection, who daily assists her beloved Radha and Krishna, who are dearer to her than life itself, in meeting at their place of rendez-vous, and who with great expertise always teaches her girlfriend Radha the art of loving pique, accept me within her own group.”

pañcarātra—“five nights.” One of the two principal approaches to worshiping Vishnu or Krishna, based on ritual and Deity worship.

parākāṣṭhā—“highest aspiration.” The tenth of the eleven aspects of the siddha-deha. It refers to the dream of the manjari to receive a particular special grace from the Divine Couple. In Jaiva Dharma, Bhaktivinoda refers to Vilāpa-kusumāñjali 100 and 102 as examples of parākāṣṭhāśvāsa, e.g.: “O Lord! O nectar moon of Gokula! Your cheerful face is like a blooming lotus flower, O sweetly smiling one, melting with compassion! Please lead me to the place where You and Your beloved enjoy Your delightful loving pastimes.” (100)

parihāsa—jokingly, jest or ridicule. One of the four kinds of nāmābhāsa (q.v.). See HNC 3.38.

pratibimba-nāmābhāsaPratibimba means reflection. Bhaktivinoda Thakur uses this term to signify a chanting of the Holy Name that is rooted in a false or distorted faith, i.e. an understanding of God as an impersonal truth. See HNC 3.56ff.

rāgānugā bhakti—Devotion that is impelled by natural desire rather than by logical argument or external pressure. Such devotion is usually characterized by the desire to follow specific eternal associates of the Lord.

rāgānuga-krama—In the smaraṇa-daśā (q.v.), meditation on the circadian pastimes of the Divine Couple impelled by desire rather than out of a lesser motivation. Not to be confused with rāgānugā bhakti itself, as smaraṇa of the type being discussed there is an anga of rāgānugā bhakti.

rasa—Lit. “juice, sap, nectar” or “taste, flavor,” this word has a long history in Sanskrit poetics. Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Thakur innovated “mellows” as a translation and this usage has become current through the widespread publications of Bhaktivedanta Swami. It has usefulness as a totally new usage of the word “mellow” and as such there can be no objection to its use. Scholars often translate the word as “sentiment” or “aesthetic experience.” Some other devotees use “sacred rapture.” All of uses are possible according to the context, but I have prefered to use the original word rasa where the specific devotional experience specific to a particular relationship with Krishna is concerned. The word is not to be confused with rāsa, as in Krishna’s rāsa dance. As a technical term, rasa means the aesthetic or spiritual experience that develops out of a combination of various ingredients, the basis of which is a feeling of love for Krishna. See HNC 15.7 with footnote.

rasika—One who seeks and relishes rasa. The term is used of both the mundane and the transcendental rasas.

rati—Lit. “love”; especially erotic love. The term has specific meaning in aesthetics, however, meaning the same as sthāyi-bhāva (q.v.).

ruci—“taste or inclination,” as in “to have a taste for something” (not like rasa, which means the flavor itself.) (1) Bhaktivinoda defines this as “the tendency that arises out of the merit one has accumulated in the present and previous lives.” In modern terms this would mean the tendencies coming out of one’s religious actions, both through nature and nurture. (2) This is also the name of a state of spiritual advancement, following dedication and preceding attachment, when one starts to experience spontaneous enthusiasm for devotional activities. According to Jiva Goswami (Bhakti-sandarbha 312-314), rāgānugā bhaktas who have not attained the stage of ruci are advised to practice a mixture of rāgānugā (q.v.) and vaidhi bhakti (q.v.), i.e., devotion that is motivated by the positive desire to attain direct service in a particular rasa, or devotion that is motivated by scriptural injunctions and logical arguments.

sahaja—“easy or natural.” See Bhajana-rahasya, Chapter 6.

sahajīyā—(1) A heterodox sect that considers Tantric sexual practices to be the real purport of the Vaishnava scriptures describing the activities of the Divine Couple. Sometimes called Prakrita Sahajiyas. (2) A term used more widely to include all those who have a mundane concept of Krishna’s divine romantic pastimes, or who think that they can attain them without the requisite moral purification.

sahṛdaya—“one who has heart”; the appreciative audience of Sanskrit poetry or dramatic works. The sahṛdaya is a person who has the education and culture to appreciate the subtleties of such works and is also situated in the mode of goodness and thus able to concentrate on what is being said, thus allowing the full force of rasa to manifest in him. (See HNC 15.32 fn.)

sambandha—Literally “relation.” (1) A more accurate translation would be “theology,” “dogma,” or “orthodox doctrine.” Since these words all have strong connotations related to Christianity and its history, we prefer to leave it untranslated. The word is used in a special way by Gaudiya Vaishnavas to include all aspects of metaphysics and general theology and anthropology; i.e. the nature of God, creation and man. In Gaudiya Vaishnavism, sambandha is the first of the three divisions of devotional theology, the other two being abhidheya and prayojana (q.v.). According to Jaiva Dharma (590), “Sambandha is the foundation of all spiritual attainment. One attains a specific final goal based on the relationship one establishes with Krishna.” (2) The first of the eleven aspects of the siddha-deha.

sampatti-daśā—“stage of full possession or fulfilment.” Also called vastu-siddhi. Sampatti means possession, prosperity, welfare, good fortune, success, accomplishment, fulfilment, etc. In Jaiva Dharma (p. 598), prema-sampatti-daśā.

saṅketa—as a name, signal. “when one utters Vishnu’s name but has a material concept of the Lord, or when one uses Vishnu’s name to indicate some other person or thing” (HNC 3.39-42); One of the four kinds of Namabhasa (q.v.). Other translations given are “hint” and “unintentionally.” The latter is erroneous. Saṅketa happens when one uses Krishna’s name to indicate something else, like another person, as happened when Ajamila named his son Narayan.

sevā—“Service.” This is the ninth of the eleven aspects of the siddha-deha. See also bhāva-sevā. “You are a follower of Srimati Radharani. Your service is to serve Her. If she sends you to a secluded place where you meet Krishna, and if He proposes making love to you, you should refuse His proposal. You are Radha’s maidservant, and without Her permission you cannot serve Krishna on your own. Though you love both Radha and Krishna, your love and service to Radha are more important to you than your love and service to Krishna. That is the meaning of the word seva. Serving Sri Radha through the eight periods of the day is your service.” (Jaiva Dharma, 592-3).

śraddhā—faith. The point of entry into devotional life. Divided into pāramarthika and laukika (q.v.).

śikṣā guru—The spiritual teacher in more general terms. There are different kinds of instructing spiritual masters, including those who first show the aspirant the way (vartma-pradarśaka) and those who give more advanced instruction to one who has already been initiated and has embarked on the way (bhajana-śikṣā-guru).

smaraṇa— “remembering, meditation.” (1) One of the nine principles activities of devotional practice. (2) One of the five modes of the smaraṇa-daśā (q.v.), which are described in Bhakti-sandarbha 278. Jiva says “even the briefest seeking out of the object of meditation.” See HNC 15.93: “Simple remembering is the stage where one recalls his spiritual identity in its eleven aspects and its relationship to his service in the circadian pastimes of the Divine Couple. At this point, there is still no constancy in such remembrance, as sometimes one remembers, while at others is distracted.”

smaraṇa-daśā—The third stage of bhāva-sādhanā. This is the essential stage where the practitioner cultivates his identification with spiritual form by meditating on it and his service to the Divine Couple in that form. According to Caitanya-śikṣāmṛta (306): “There are five modes of remembering: smaraṇa, dhyāna, dhāraṇā, dhruvānusmṛti and samādhi [q.v.]. At the stage of remembering, one progresses from Krishna’s name to His form; at the meditational stage (dhyāna), at the dhāraṇā stage one progresses to Krishna’s qualities; at the stage of firm and constant recollection, one remembers Krishna’s pastimes. Then at the stage of trance one enters Krishna’s pastimes and is completely immersed in rasa. This is the stage of āpana-daśā.” Narottam Das Thakur writes in Prema-bhakti-candrikā: smaraṇe bhābibe jāha siddha-dehe pāibe tāhā—“You will achieve at the time of perfection whatever you have been thinking of during your meditation.” Bhaktivinoda Thakur divides remembering into the vaidha-krama and rāgānuga-krama (q.v.).

sphūrti—This word should literally be translated as “hallucination” or “vision.” Other possible translations are “theophany” or “epiphany.” It refers to the sudden appearance or experience of the object of worship to the worshiper. (See HNC 15.37 fn).

śraddhā-nāma—The Holy Name chanted with faith, even by someone who is afflicted by anarthas. HNC 3.47.

śravaṇa-daśā—The first stage of the bhāva-mārga, where one hears the bhāva-tattva from a qualified guru. In Jaiva Dharma (599-600), Bhaktivinoda Thakur gives a wider understanding of the hearing stage as starting with hearing about Krishna. In Caitanya-śikṣāmṛta (305-6): “The joyful stage that comes about when one hears about the spiritual practices and their goal from a qualified teacher is called śravaṇa-daśā. On this stage, one hears all about how to chant the Holy Name without offenses, the process for chanting (praṇālī) and the qualifications to practice it.”

stobha—One of the four kinds of nāmābhāsa (q.v.). Bhaktivinoda explains as “mocking” use of the Holy Name. Vishwanath glosses as meaningless uttering of the Holy Name, i.e., as in making sounds in a song. See HNC 3.37. Sometimes incorrectly given as stoma.

svārasikī līlā—Lit. “coming out of one’s personal taste.” Used as a term to refer to the “moving picture” or “flowing” pastimes of the Lord as they change over the course of the day.

svarūpa-siddhi—“identity perfection,” i.e. full identification with the spiritual body given by the spiritual master. Jaiva Dharma (606): “A person who has attained the stage of bhāvāpana-daśā attains spiritual sight and has a vision of both his sakhi (Lalita) and his yūtheśvarī (Radha). Even though he may also have a vision of Lord Krishna, the master of Goloka, until his subtle material body is at last dissolved and he attains the sampatti-daśā (“the stage of full possession”) he does not experience Him at every moment. When he attains bhāvāpana-daśā, the pure soul has complete control over his gross and subtle material bodies. However, only when he attains Lord Krishna’s complete and full mercy will the soul attain the final spiritual goal, where he completely breaks off all relationship with the material world of five elements.” (HNC 15; Caitanya-śikṣāmṛta, 317)

tattva-bhrama—The first of the four anarthas, “erroneous understanding.” It is of four kinds: of one’s own true identity, that of the supreme, of the means and end of spiritual life, and of what opposes spiritual attainment. (Bhajana-rahasya 2.8)

tattva-vyavadhāna—a “discontinuity of understanding,” i.e., between what the object is and what one thinks it is.

uttama adhikārī. One who knowns the scriptures well, has firm faith and clear determination to practice devotional service. (Bhajana-rahasya 1.2.17).

vaidha-krama—The process leading to perfection followed by a devotee not entirely motivated by spontaneous desire.

vaiṣṇavābhāsa or vaiṣṇava-prāya—“almost a Vaishnava” or “not quite a Vaishnava.” Spoken a little disparagingly of the neophyte devotee. (See kaniṣṭha-vaiṣṇava)

varaṇa-daśā—“The accepting stage.” The second stage of bhāva-sādhana, when after hearing about the spiritual body, one accepts it. See Jaiva Dharma (600-601). In Caitanya-śikṣāmṛta (306): “When one has become worthy, he receives a japa mala that has been imbued with the Holy Name and ecstatic love from the spiritual master; in other words, the stage where the disciple with great satisfaction accepts the pure method of chanting from the spiritual master and is empowered by him to follow it is called varaṇa-daśā.”

vāsa-sthāna—“place of residence.” One of the eleven aspects of the siddha form. It usually refers to a particular kunj by Radha Kund, such as Svananda-sukhada Kunj in the case of Bhaktivinoda Thakur himself. In Jaiva Dharma, p. 592, Goswami says, “Eternal residence in Vraja is called vāsa. You will take birth as a certain gopi in a certain village within the land of Vraja and be married to a certain gopa in another village. Nevertheless, you will be attracted by the sound of Krishna’s flute and go off to follow one of the sakhis to Radha Kund, where you will have a cottage in her personal forest grove. The residence which is established by your spiritual ego-consciousness is your eternal residence.”

vastu-siddhi—“concrete perfection” (Cś 318) After the material body has passed away while one is at the stage of āpana-daśā. Also called sampatti-daśā. The expression sampatti-siddhi is also found in Jaiva Dharma. Ref. to Bhajana-rahasya 1.3.29 and 1.4.12.

vayas—age. The second of the eleven bhāvas or aspects of the siddha-deha. In Jaiva Dharma (p. 591), Gopal Guru Goswami says, “As your relationship with Krishna awakens, a wonderful spiritual form also manifests. In your case it is that of a beautiful girl in Vraja, which will be of an age appropriate to your service. This means adolescence or kaiśora, which is the age between ten and sixteen. It is also known as vayaḥ-sandhi, or the juncture between childhood and adulthood. Thus as you advance in service, your age will increase from ten up to sixteen. Infancy, childhood and old age do not exist for the beautiful girls of Vraja. Therefore you should think of yourself in a spiritual form in the kaiśora age.”

veṣa—apparel, clothing. One of the eleven bhāvas or aspects of the siddha-deha.

yoga-pīṭha—Lit. “The seat of union.” The place where Radha and Krishna meet in Vrindavan and are united with all their friends. The site of the Govindaji temple in Vrindavan.

yūtha—“group, cohort.” See yūtheśvarī. This is one of the eleven aspects of the spiritual identity.

yūtheśvarī (yūtheśvarī)—The different gopis who compete for Krishna’s affection, each of whom have a yūtha, or coterie of sakhis. Of all the yūtheśvarīs, Radharani is the most important. Lalita, Visakha and the other sakhis belong to her group, even though they have the qualities that make them capable of acting as competitors for Krishna’s love.

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