Priti Sandarbha 10: Five Types of Mukti / The siddha deha





The tenth anuccheda will be divided into three parts. The first discusses utkranta-mukti. The five kinds of mukti are contained within this discussion. 10.2 will discuss the permanence of liberation, and it will give cause to reflect on the question of the fall of the soul from Vaikuntha. 10.3 talks about the siddha-deha. So there is a lot of material in this anuccheda.



Anuccheda 10: Sālokya-mukti, Residing in Bhagavān's Abode

10.1 The Five Types of mukti

tatrotkrāntāvasthā ca śrī-prahlāda-stutau—"uśattama te’ṅghri-mūlaṁ prīto’pavarga-śaraṇaṁ hvayase kadā nu" [bhā.pu. 7.9.16] ity-ādau jñeyā | saivāntimā |

The state of liberation [i.e., direct realization of Bhagavān] after death is described in the prayers of Prahlāda:

O effulgent Bhagavān, being pleased with me, when will You call me to Your feet, the abode of ultimate liberation? (SB 7.9.16)

trasto'smy ahaṁ kṛpaṇa-vatsala duḥsahogra-
saṁsāra-cakra-kadanād grasatāṁ praṇītaḥ
baddhaḥ sva-karmabhir uśattama te'ṅghri-mūlaṁ
prīto'pavarga-śaraṇaṁ hvayase kadā nu

[I am not afraid of You] O caretaker of the lowly, but fear the humiliations and intolerable sufferings of repeated births and deaths in this world. O effulgent Bhagavān, being pleased with me, when will You call me to Your feet, the abode of ultimate liberation? (SB 7.9.16)


sa tat-kara-sparśa-dhutākhilāśubhaḥ
sapady abhivyakta-parātma-darśanaḥ
tat-pāda-padmaṁ hṛdi nirvṛto dadhau
hṛṣyat-tanuḥ klinna-hṛd aśru-locanaḥ ||

All the sins of Prahlāda were dispelled by the touch of Bhagavān’s hand and direct realization of the supreme Brahman was revealed to him immediately. Being happy, he took Bhagavān’s lotus feet in his heart with his hairs standing on end out of joy, his heart moist and eyes full of tears. (SB 7.9.6)

This alone is the final [state of liberation].

muktiś ca pañcadhā—sālokya-sārṣṭi-sārūpya-sāmīpya-sāyujya-bhedena | tatra sālokyaṁ samāna-lokatvaṁ śrī-vaikuṇṭha-vāsaḥ |

Mukti is of five types, namely sālokya, sārṣṭi, sārūpya, sāmīpya and sāyujya. Sālokya means to have the same abode [as Bhagavān], i.e., residence in Vaikuṇṭha;

sārṣṭis tatraiva samānaiśvaryam api bhavatīti |

Sārṣṭi means to there [i.e., while residing in His abode] have the same opulences as He.

sārūpyaṁ tatraiva samāna-rūpatādi prāpyata iti |

Sārūpya is similarly to have a form there like His.

sāmīpyaṁ samīpa-gamanādhikāritvam |

Sāmīpya means to have the right to go into His presence.

sāyujyaṁ keṣāṁcit bhagavac-chrī-vigraha eva praveśo bhavatīti |

Some persons get sāyujya, which means they enter into Bhagavān's body. [Otherwise generally it means entering into Brahman.]

sālokyādi-śabdānāṁ mukty-ādi-śabda-sāmānādhikaraṇyaṁ ca sālokyāditva-prādhānyena |

The words sālokya and so on are synonymous with words meaning mukti because residence in Bhagavān’s abode, etc. , are predominant characteristic features of liberation.

tatra sālokya-sārṣṭi-sārūpya-mātre prāyo’ntaḥ-karaṇa-sākṣātkāraḥ | sāmīpye prāyo bahiḥ | sāyujye cāntara eva | 

Out of these five types of mukti, internal realization of Bhagavān is characteristic primarily of sālokyasārṣṭi and sārūpya; in sāmīpya it is mostly external, and in sāyujya it can only be internal.

tathāpi prakaṭa-sphūrti-lakṣaṇaṁ tat suṣuptivad anati-prakaṭa-sphūrti-lakṣaṇāt brahma-sāyujyād bhidyate | 

Even so, this internal realization has the nature of Bhagavān's clear and visible manifestation and is thus distinct from brahma-sāyujya which is characterized by an indistinct manifestation such as in the state of deep sleep.

utkrānta-mukty-avasthāyām api viśeṣa-sphūrtiḥ śrutāv eva sammatā—

The special manifestation [of the Tattva ] in the liberated state after death is certainly accepted in the statements of the Śruti:

sa vā eṣa evaṁ paśyann evaṁ manvāna evaṁ vijānann ātma-ratir ātma-krīḍa ātma-mithuna ātmānandaḥ, sa svarāḍ bhavati tasya sarveṣu lokeṣu kāma-cāro bhavati | [chā.u. 7.25.2] iti |

Seeing in this way, reflecting in this way, knowing in this way, [the liberated soul] takes pleasure in the Self, sports in the Self, unites in the Self and enjoys the bliss of the Self. He becomes self-effulgent and travels to all the planets at will. (CU 7.25.2)

Commentary by SND

After explaining the soul liberated while still living in the world, the jīvan-mukta, Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī explains the bhagavat-sākṣātkāra experienced as utkrānta-mukti or antimā mukti. This is followed by an explanation of the five types of mukti. These five types of mukti are listed by Kapiladeva in 3.29.13, and also hinted by Viṣṇu in 9.4.67.

Sāyujya is of two types, brahma-sāyujya and bhagavat-sāyujya. Because here the discussion is about mukti from bhagavat-sākṣātkāra, Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī describes only bhagavat-sāyujya. In brahma-sāyujya there is no explicit sense of one’s separate existence. One’s identity remains implicit within Brahman. Thus Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī compares it to the dreamless state of sleep. There are no words to describe it because it is an indeterminate experience, like a baby's experience of eating chocolate. A baby has no means and no words to express what it is tasting.

In bhagavat-sāyujya one experiences what Bhagavān does. However, Vaiṣṇavas do not desire either type of sāyujya because there is no possibility of service in them. Brahma-sāyujya was rejected as puruṣārtha because nobody wants to become bliss, but rather desires to experience it. Bhagavat-sāyujya is rejected by pure Vaiṣṇavas because there is no scope in it for any service or prīti. Indeed, pure Vaiṣṇavas consider bhagavat-sāyujya to be more despicable than brahma-sāyujya.






10.2 Mukti is Beyond the Guṇas, Whence One Never Returns

eṣā ca pañcavidhāpi guṇātītaiva | nirguṇāyāṁ bhūma-vidyāyām eva—"sa ekadhā bhavati tridhā bhavati" [chā.u. 7.26.2] ity-ādinā tad-vidhasya muktasya svecchayā nānā-vidha-rūpa-prākaṭya-śravaṇāt,

All these five types of mukti are beyond the guṇas of material nature. Mukti’s transcendental nature is described in the Bhuma Vidyā which is nirguṇa, by stating that such a liberated self can manifest various forms by mere willing, as is said in statements such as: "He becomes one, he becomes two, he becomes three." (sa ekadhā bhavati tridhā bhavati, CU 7.26.2)

"na yatra māyā" [bhā.pu. 2.9.10] ity-ādau vaikuṇṭhasya māyātītatva-śravaṇāt |

Mukti is transcendental beyond guṇas because Vaikuṇṭha is described as beyond māyā, as in "There is no māyā in Vaikuṇṭha." (SB 2.9.10)

atrāvṛtti-rāhityaṁ cāṅgīkṛtam—anāvṛttiḥ śabdāt [ve.sū. 4.4.23] ity anena, na sa punar āvartate [chā.u. 8.15.1] iti śruteḥ |

The state of mukti is irreversible, as is said: "No one returns from the state of mukti because śāstra says so." (VS 4.4.23) "He does not return back to this world." (CU 8.15.1)

tathoktaṁ hiraṇyakaśipūpadruta-devaiḥ—

tasyai namo’stu kāṣṭhāyai yatrātmā harir īśvaraḥ |
yad gatvā na nivartante śāntāḥ sannyāsino’malāḥ || [bhā.pu. 7.4.22] iti |

This was also spoken by the gods who were harassed by Hiranyakaśipu:

Our obeisance to the direction where the supreme regulator Hari resides. On reaching that abode the pure hearted renunciates who have peaceful minds do not return back to this world. (SB 7.4.22)

śrī-kapila-devena ca——
na karhicin mat-parāḥ śānta-rūpe
naṅkṣyanti no me’nimiṣo leḍhi hetiḥ || [bhā.pu. 3.25.39] iti |

Kapiladeva also spoke:

O peaceful mother, My devotees are never destroyed. My weapon in the form of time never devours them. (SB 3.25.38)

na karhicin mat-parāḥ śānta-rūpe
naṅkṣyanti no me’nimiṣo leḍhi hetiḥ |
yeṣām ahaṁ priya ātmā sutaś ca
sakhā guruḥ suhṛdo daivam iṣṭam ||

In that abode of unalterable peace, are found only those who know themselves and feel themselves to belong to Me entirely. They will never meet with destruction; My unblinking wheel never devours those for whom I am the total Beloved, their very Self, son, friend, preceptor, relative, benefactor and worshipable Lord.

tathaiva—

ā-brahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino’rjuna |
mām upetya tu kaunteya punar janma na vidyate || [gītā 8.16] iti |

Similarly in Gītā:

O Arjuna, all planets, up to and including that of Brahmā, are places from which the residents must endure return (to earth) again, but upon attaining Me, O son of Kuntī, there is no rebirth. (Gītā 8.16)

yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama | [gītā 15.4] iti |

Having reached where one never returns, that is My supreme abode. (Gītā 15.6)

"tat-prasādāt parāṁ śāntiṁ sthānaṁ prāpsyasi śāśvatam |" [gītā 18.62] iti ca śrī-gītopaniṣadaś ca dṛśyāḥ |

By His grace you will attain supreme piece and the eternal abode. (Gītā 18.62)

pādma-sṛṣṭi-khaṇḍe ca—

ā-brahma-sadanād eva doṣāḥ santi mahīpate |
ata eva hi necchanti svarga-prāptiṁ manīṣiṇaḥ ||
ā-brahma-sadanād ūrdhvaṁ tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṁ padam |
śubhraṁ sanātanaṁ jyotiḥ para-brahmeti tad viduḥ ||
na tatra mūḍhā gacchanti puruṣā viṣayātmakāḥ |
dambha-lobha-bhaya-droha-krodha-mohair abhidrutāḥ ||
nirmamā nirahaṅkārā nirdvandvāḥ saṁyatendiryāḥ |
dhyāna-yoga-ratāś caiva tatra gacchanti sādhavaḥ || [pa.pu. 2.95.14b-18a] iti |

The Bhūmi Khaṇḍa of Padma Purāṇa (14b-18a) says the following:

O King, up to the abode of Brahmā problems abound, therefore, the thoughtful sages do not wish to attain heaven. Beyond the abode of Brahmā lies the supreme abode of Viṣṇu which is pure, eternal and effulgent. It is known as the Supreme Brahman. The foolish who are absorbed in sense pleasures being overpowered by hypocrisy, greed, fear, maliciousness, anger and delusion cannot reach it. The saints who are free of the possessive mentality, devoid of false pride and duality, having control of the senses, who engage in meditation reach that abode.

tatraiva subāhu-nṛpa-vākyam—
dhyāna-yogena deveśaṁ yajiṣye kamalā-priyam |
bhava-pralaya-nirmuktaṁ viṣṇu-lokaṁ vrajāmy aham || [pa.pu. 2.95.22b-23a] iti |

In the same chapter of Padma Purāṇa itself there is the following statement of King Subāhu:

I shall worship the Supreme Bhagavān, husband of the goddess of fortune, through meditation and go to Viṣṇuloka, which is free from creation and annihilation. (Bhūmi-khaṇḍa 95.22b 23a)

sālokyādīnām avicyutatvaṁ darśayiṣyate ca—


mat-sevayā pratītaṁ te sālokyādi-catuṣṭayam |
necchanti sevayā pūrṇāḥ kuto’nyat kāla-viplutam || [bhā.pu. 9.4.67]

The infallibility of sālokya etc. will be shown later by statements such as:

Being satisfied with the service unto Me they do not desire the four types of liberation beginning with sālokya which is available to them because of devotion to Me. Then where is the possibility of desring anything which will be devoured by time? (SB 9.4.67)

ity-ādiṣu tad-itaratraiva kāla-viplutatvāṅgīkārāt | tasmāt kvacid āvṛtti-śravaṇaṁ tu prapañcāntargata-tad-dhāmatvāpekṣayā kādācitka-tal-līlā-kautukāpekṣayā ca mantavyam | 

Sālokya, etc. are eternal positions, because in the above verse only the boons other than sālokya, etc. are described as pershable by time. Therefore when sometimes it is described that someone returned to the earth, that return is from Bhagavān's abode manifest in the material creation or it is for the pleasure of Bhagavān’s pastime on earth.



Commentary by SND

The propagators of the fall-down theory tender two scriptural proofs in its support. In the purāṇas while describing the result of some pious deeds there is mention that a person ascends to Vaikuṇṭha, stays there for a long period, and then returns to the material world. This is taken as a proof of fall-down. But it is illogical to think of it in that way. The person was in the material world to begin with and then returns there. There is no mention of a anyone who was never in the material world falling down. Moreover, if one reads the description of such people ascending to Vaikuṇṭha and returning back, there is always a description that such people engaging in devotion after their return from Vaikuṇṭha before going back to never return again. Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī cites the story of King Subahu described in Padma Purāṇa to support this.

In their support, the fall-down theorists also cite the history of Jaya and Vijaya falling down from Vaikuṇṭha to the material world. Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī writes that the example of Jaya and Vijaya should not be considered as a fall down. They never came under the influence of the karmic law. It was decided beforehand that they would take only three births and then return home to the Lord's abode. They came only for the purpose of participating in Bhagavān's divine play. They cannot be taken as an example of some one falling from Vaikuṇṭha and then becoming conditioned by māyā. Jaya and Vijaya were in no way in the same category as ordinary people.





10.3 The Liberated Souls Have Spiritual Bodies

paścāt tu nitya-sālokyam eva, yathā bhaviṣyottare—


evaṁ kaunteya kurute yo’raṇya-dvādaśīṁ naraḥ |
sa dehānte vimāna-stha-divya-kanyā-samāvṛtaḥ ||
yāti jñāti-samāyuktaḥ śvetadvīpaṁ hareḥ puram |
yatra lokā pīta-vastrā ity-ādi |

But later on they attain eternal sālokya, as is stated in Bhaviṣya Purāṇa, Uttara Parva.

O son of Kuntī, in this way a person who observes the fast of Araṇya Dvādaśī, after giving up his body, riding an aeroplane, accompanied by his relatives and surrounded by divine damsels, he goes to Śvetadvīpa, the abode of Bhagavān Hari where people are adorned in yellow garments. (66.21-22b)

tiṣṭhanti viṣṇu-sānnidhye yāvad-āhūta-samplavam |
tasmād etya mahā-vīryāḥ pṛthivyāṁ nṛpa pūjitāḥ |
martya-loke kīrtimantaḥ sambhavanti narottamāḥ ||
tato yānti paraṁ sthānaṁ mokṣa-mārgaṁ śivaṁ sukham |
yatra gatvā na śocanti na saṁsāre bhramanti ca || iti |

It further says:

They stay in the proximity of Bhagavān Viṣṇu until the final dissolution. After that, O King, they are born as great powerful personalities on earth, having fame in the world and honored by people. After that they go to the supreme abode, the place of liberation, which is auspicious and pleasurable. Having reached that place they neither lament nor wander back into the material world. (Uttara Parva 66.23b-26)

yathā ca jaya-vijaya-vṛtte tatra sālokyodāharaṇe | tat-sādhaka-daśāyām api nairguṇyāveśa uktaḥ | "sāttvikaḥ kārako'saṅgī" ity-ādau "nirguṇo mad-apāśrayaḥ" (11.25.26) iti |

The example of the other (coming down to participate in Bhagavān's pastime) is the history of Jaya and Vijaya. This is an example of sālokya mukti. A devotee is beyond the guṇas of nature even in the practising stage, as Kṛṣṇa said: "One who takes shelter of Me and works is nirguṇa." (SB 11.25.26)
utkrānta-mukti-daśāyāṁ tu teṣāṁ bhagavat-tulyatvam evāha—

vasanti yatra puruṣāḥ sarve vaikuṇṭha-mūrtayaḥ |
ye’nimitta-nimittena dharmeṇārādhayan harim || [bhā.pu. 3.15.14]

And in the state of liberation after giving up the body, they are described as equal to Bhagavān:

All the people residing there have a form similar to Bhagavān Vaikuṇṭha, and are engaged in the worship of Hari without any motive. (SB 3.15.14)

[Vaikuṇṭha refers to both the abode as well as the master of the abode.]

nimittaṁ phalaṁ na tan-nimittaṁ pravartakaṁ yasmin tena niṣkāmenety arthaḥ | dharmeṇa bhāgavatākhyena | 


"Motive" (nimittam) means the result [or reason for which one engages in an action], therefore, animitta-nimittena means "that which is not inspired by any desire for result." It means desirelessness. "Religious duties" (dharmena) refers to the Bhāgavata-dharma.

vaikuṇṭhasya bhagavato jyotir-aṁśa-bhūtā vaikuṇṭha-loka-śobhā-rūpā yā anantā mūrtayas tatra vartante | tāsām ekayā saha muktasyaikasya mūrtiḥ bhagavatā kriyata iti vaikuṇṭhasya mūrtir iva mūrtir yeṣām ity uktam |
 

There are unlimited forms existing there, each of which is a portion of the effulgence of Bhagavān, also known as Vaikuṇṭha, that beautifies His abode. To be united with one of these forms, Bhagavān creates a form for each liberated self. For this reason, it was said [in the above verse] that the people residing there have forms like tthat of Bhagavān Vaikuṇṭha (vaikuṇṭha-mūrtayaḥ).

॥ ३.१५ ॥ श्रीब्रह्मा देवान् ॥ १० ॥



Commentary by SND

Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī says that after death those who attained mukti by bhagavat-sākṣātkāra ascend to Vaikuṇṭha and are awarded a suitable spiritual body. In Vaikuṇṭha there are many spiritual bodies decorating it like paintings on the wall of a house. These bodies are spiritual since nothing is material in Vaikuṇṭha, but they remain in an inactive state. When a jīvan-mukta gives up the present material body, Bhagavān assigns to them a suitable body from Vaikuṇṭha. This is the eternal body of that liberated person, which is called the siddha-svarūpa, siddha-deha or pārṣada-deha. These bodies are eternal; they were never created; they have existed without any beginning and will never come to an end. The constitutional position of each jīva is to be a servant of Bhagavān. Therefore, whenever one wants to turn his awareness towards Bhagavān he becomes qualified to get a spiritual form. But that form is granted only when one has relinquished the present material body.

Performing mental service with the siddha-deha is the specialty of the Gauḍīya sampradāya. Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī recommends that one should practice performing service with both the external sādhaka body and the mentally conceived siddha body. When one takes shelter of a qualified guru and performs service without any ulterior motive or separatist mentality, and the guru is pleased with him or her, then Bhagavān reveals the siddha-deha to such a disciple in the heart of the guru. The guru then reveals it to the disciple who thenceforth practices serving Bhagavān in this form while meditating on the nitya-līlā.

Some people propagate that our siddha-deha is inside us in a dormant state. Every jīva already has a siddha-deha in it. It is not something that is given from outside. Such a view is not supported by Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī or ultimately by Śrīmad Bhāgavatam.

In the next anuccheda Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī gives an example of attaining siddha-deha.

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