Gopala Champu 3 Kaishora-vilasa: Krishna's youth

This is the third division of the Purva-champu, dealing primarily with Krishna's adolescence and amorous activities. With 20 chapters, this is the longest of the six secondary champu divisions. At the end of the first chapter of this division, a new format of evening and morning sessions for the bards' recital is introduced, the agreement being that the evening sessions will be for the recital of Radha and Krishna's love stories to a more restricted assembly of intimates, while the morning sessions will take place before a more general audience.

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Chapter 14: The killing of the donkey demon

This chapter is one of the shortest (only two are shorter) in GC i. Krishna's increasing beauty as he reaches adolescence is described. The cowherds express a desire for the tala fruit guarded by Dhenuka. When Krishna leads the boys to the tala orchard, Dhenuka, the donkey-shaped demon attacks with his cohorts. He is soon killed by the two brothers. When the b(rothers enter the encampment at the end of the day, the gopis manifest their attraction for Krishna. The Dhenuka story is found in HV 2.13, ViP v.8 and BhP x.15.20-36.

Chapter 15: The awakening of incomparable first signs of love

==> Complete translation of this chapter: Part 1, Part 2 <==

This session takes place on the same evening that the previous chapter was recited. It is the first of the new set of parallel recitals and as such has its own independent mangalacharan of three verses. This first of these is the verse outlining the subject of their recital (vastu-nirdesha):
Wise persons have determined that 
though these two are of a black and golden hue respectively, 
in their minds they are of the opposite colours,
as too, externally, are their clothes.
This is a pure, unblemished love that has become incarnate, 
taking on this form of dual manifestation, 
simultaneously divided and a unity.(14)
The verse of salutation (namaskar):
Uddhava glorified the gopis, saying that Lakshmi 
could never ever be on their level.
Even though he is considered by Hari to be his equal, 
he made his obeisance to the dust of their feet. 
Amongst these gopis, we worship Radhika, 
the most glorious of them all,
whose body is like the moon of love for Krishna, 
transforming him into a chakora bird 
that pursues her everywhere to drink its rays. (15)
The verse of benediction (ashirvad):
This love, which inundates this divine pair of lovers, 
and their girlfriends in its own bliss, 
will engulf the entire universe for all time. 
May that love ever inflame our intelligence.(16)
The chapter then goes on to describe the birth and childhood of Radha and the other gopis. Their parents seek to arrange their marriage to Krishna, but Vasudeva, believing Krishna to be his own son, a kshatriya, sends Garga to Vraja to thwart any such possibility. Garga warns Nanda that if Krishna marries in Braj, then his milkmaid wives will inevitably be separated from him. Nanda communicates Garga’s warning to the girls’ parents and everyone agrees that it would be better to arrange marriages for their daughters elsewhere rather than risk Krishna's departure. They thus begin the search for other husbands for their girls. Vrinda hears about this and approaches Paurnamasi with her doubts; Paurnamasi answers with a lengthy discourse meant to allay her fears about any such marriage. 

The gopis themselves begin to fall in love with Krishna. When they hear of the arrangements being made for their marriages elsewhere, they all head simultaneously for Kaliya’s lake to drown themselves. As Radha says:
If my body has been given over to someone else by my parents,
then it is as if it were already possessed by a ghost; 
it would therefore be more ignominious for it to remain living. 
Fie on my body, which is capable of tolerating 
the misery of association with another person! 
It is rather my duty to sacrifice it today at this holy site
for the sake of Balaram's younger brother.(17)
The mantra that they utter before committing themselves to the waters is evidence of their single-minded desire:
Oh daughter of the sun-god! This is our prayer:
that the king and queen of the cowherd settlement 
should become our father and mother-in-law; 
that Balaram's brother become our husband 
and that Vrindavan always be our play-garden. 
May all these girls who are here immersed in your waters, 
their hands bound in each other's in mutual affection, 
always remain my friends, forever. 
To this end have we taken shelter of you.(18)
Before they can go through with their mass suicide, they are stopped by a heavenly voice and placed on shore by the river goddess, Kalindi. Paurnamasi arrives on the scene and explains to them all that they need not fear, that and all will be well. She recalls Garga's prophetic words (10.8.18):
O Nanda! No enemy can overcome those greatly fortunate persons who feel affection for this son of yours, just as no demons can ever defeat those protected by Vishnu.(19)
Afterwards, Paurnamasi introduces Madhumangala and Vrinda to Krishna. Through Madhumangala, Krishna learns about the gopis' attempted suicide and the prayer they had made. As a result, now that he is aware of the gopis’ feelings, the mutual love of Krishna and the gopis grows even stronger.
Radha's health began to fail in various ways, 
so she took to mantras and prayers to attain tranquillity of mind, 
but even so, it remained greatly disturbed. 
Alas, her dear girlfriends, seeing her malaise,
thought, "Oh dear! Who will save her?"
and quickly fell into the same most pitiful state.(20)
Chapter 16: The killing of Pralamba and extinguishing the forest fire 

This chapter contains only a morning session. It follows BhP x.18-19 in giving a poetic description of the summer season and a great deal more of Krishna's sports while herding the cows. Krishna and the cowherds perform for each other, singing, dancing, wrestling, and playing other games. One day, Kamsa sends Pralamba to Vraja to kill Krishna, disguised as a cowherd, but ultimately he too is killed by Balaram. Later, Kamsa's agents again cause a forest fire that Krishna easily swallows up.

Chapter 17: Learning the flute as a means to coax the beloved 

==> Complete translation of this chapter: <==

This chapter develops out of BhP x.20-21, primarily the latter, which is the venu-gita, where the gopis describe Krishna as he plays the flute, enchanting the various flora and fauna of Vrindavan. The chapter is an evening session.

It begins with further descriptions of Radha and Krishna's increasing feelings for each other. The gopis are sent to their so-called husbands' houses and must be pacified by Paurnamasi again. She instructs them: "Whenever you feel that your virtue is about to be lost, then you should run away somewhere. Never fear, however, for I will take care of you by my special mystical powers which will enable you to always find a hiding place at once, wherever you happen to be." (21)

The seasons pass and their effects on the gopis are described through summer, the rains and autumn. Seeing that the gopis were determined to have him by any means (adharmeNApi taM bhajAni), Krishna sought a means to bring them under his control. Though he tried to ward them off by glances and throwing his herdsman's staff, he finally decided that the best means was through the flute. The rest of the chapter describes Krishna's progressive mastery of the instrument through its effects on the flora and fauna of Vrindavan. Jiva interprets this in an original way, showing that Krishna is learning to play the flute and gradually progressing up the evolutionary ladder, so to speak, seeking ultimately to enchant the gopis. This theme is picked up again later in later chapters, culminating in GCP 23, the abhisara for the rasa dance. Much of this chapter is derived from VT commentaries on the verses of the venu-gita.

Chapter 18: Shattering the pride of Indra, the mountain-breaker, and increasing the prestige of the mountain Govardhan 

This chapter covers BhP x.24-25; HV 59-62; ViP v.10-11. There are both morning and evening sessions. Jiva has changed the sequence of events, placing the two original BhP chapters 22-23 directly before the rasa-lila. This is to account for the year which passes between the autumn of the Govardhan Puja and the full-moon of the sharat season when the rasa takes place.

Though Jiva follows the BhP material closely, there are still several original elements such as the description of the sacrifice itself, Govardhan's manifestation, Indra's reactions, and the verses describing the gopis' moods and activities during the events of the lifting of Govardhan. 

Krishna comes back one day from grazing the cows and sees preparations being made for the Indra sacrifice. He inquires into their purpose and upon learning, argues against continuing with a sacrifice to Indra and in favour of making it for Govardhan. This is accepted and arrangements for Govardhan Puja begin according to Krishna's directions. The puja begins and soon the personified mountain appears to accept oblations. Afterwards, there is a Gopala Puja, worshipping of the cows and a circumambulation of the mountain, which is described with some gusto. The following day, bhratri-dvitiya is observed. 

Indra takes offence at the cowherds' behaviour, though much of his speech described in other versions of the story (BhP x.25.3-7, etc.) has been dropped. The rains begin and Krishna lifts Govardhan. Indra reacts to Krishna's feat in a conversation with Shankhachuda. Finally, Indra stops the rains and all exit from the shelter under Govardhan in a celebratory mood.

The evening session contains a long series of verses describing the gopis' reactions to the various events enumerated in the morning session.

Chapter 19: Krishna puts an end to Indra's lordship and becomes the lord of the cows

This chapter is based on BhP x.26-27. The other cowherds bring gifts and have a festival in honour of Krishna. In the aftermath of the rainfall, the cowherds discuss Krishna's feats. Once again, Garga's words are the key to their understanding of them. Meanwhile, Indra, conscious of his offence, is counselled by Brihaspati and then Brahma to ask Surabhi, the divine mother of all cows, to intercede for him with Krishna. Indra's prayers, etc., follow. The two come together with the gods to perform an abhisheka and to name Krishna the king of the cows. The gods bestow the name Govinda on him. The cowherd boys witness all these events, which they see as something of a joke. They tell what they have seen to the other Vrajavasis.

In the evening session, the gopis react to the abovementioned festival, which has reminded them of the wedding they would like to have with Krishna. That night Krishna continues to practice at playing the flute, increasing his powers of enchantment.

Chapter 20: A vision of Goloka which outshone the wonders of Varuna's abode

This chapter covers material original to BhP (x.28), though probably inspired by HV 62 in which Indra describes the Goloka world as being even beyond Brahmaloka. BhP x.28.11-18 are much quoted throughout the works of Jiva Gosvami, but are only paraphrased here from paras. 34-46. The chapter itself follows the narrative framework of the BhP, though it expands on it considerably. 

Nanda bathes in the Yamuna and is kidnapped by Varuna's servants. Krishna calms the panicking citizens and dives into the river, going to Varuna's abode where he is greeted by an obsequious Varuna. Varuna releases Nanda who returns with Krishna to Vraja. Krishna blesses the Vrajavasis with a vision of their "ultimate destination", Goloka, to prove that this is superior to the glories of even Varuna's abode. 

In the evening we hear how the gopis reacted to Krishna's rescue mission. Paurnamasi is said to relay descriptions of the lovesick gopis to Krishna and vice-versa.

Chapter 21: Stealing the clothes of the virgins and wholly captivating the fair gopis

The first part of this chapter is based on the BhP x.22, whose subject matter is original to the Puranas: Krishna's stealing of the gopis' clothes. The second portion of their chapter is entirely original, though based on hints found VT, describing the important event of Krishna and Radha's first face to face meeting. This chapter is an evening session only.

Some young gopis, different from those encountered in chapter 15, seek the means to make Krishna their husband. Vrinda advises them on a vrata which will be effective. On their way to their daily bath in the Yamuna, they sing a song, a fantasy about their wedding with Krishna. On the last day of the vrata, Krishna comes to their bathing spot with a number of small boys. Krishna takes the girls' clothes and climbs a tree. The little boys, Krishna and the gopis engage in a lengthy bit of amusing banter, some original, some based on a single verse from BhP. The girls finally come out of the water and are given Krishna's blessing. Thus they remain permanently pre-pubescent and are never offered elsewhere in marriage.

Two clues from BhP (x.21.17, 29.36) are expanded into an entire episode giving the story of Krishna's first direct meetings with the gopis and Radha. It begins with an account of the heights that their purvaraga has achieved. Krishna complains,
"If it did not seem that the spring, the bearer of Cupid's arrows, is to be the one who shall unite me with the cowherd beauties, then I would never be able to tolerate his unfair behavior." (22)
Radha too writes a verse on a creeper, which Vrinda conveys to Krishna:
Here in Vrindavan, 
you are a tamal tree and I a champaka creeper; 
since we are both non-moving creatures, 
our union can only take place through Vrinda, the gardener. (23)
It is a full moon in the springtime (Chaitra) and Krishna decides that now he is ready to exercise his flute playing ability, which has reached maturity, to call Radha. However, all the gopis are attracted to Krishna's side, with the exception of Radha, who has fainted upon hearing it. Krishna, interested only in Radha, tries to send the other girls back and they, unsatisfied but helpless, obey. 

Meanwhile Radha is still in a faint. Vrinda, Madhumangala and Paurnamasi intercede on her behalf saying that Radha's faint can only be broken by Krishna's touch. Though Krishna feels reluctant for so many reasons, but being importuned by Paurnamasi, finally goes to her cottage and when Vrinda falls at his feet begging him to do so, places his foot on the unconscious Radha's breast. Radha awakens and sees Krishna, who stumbles, embarrassed, out of the cottage.

Chapter 22: Receiving the pure service of the wives of the sacrifice

This chapter faithfully follows the BhP (x.22-23), where the story originates. This account is described at a morning session. More cowherding activities are described, including the fanciful glorifying of Vrindavan's trees. Krishna and the cowherds arrive at the banks of the Yamuna in Kamyavana when Krishna's friends say that they are hungry. Krishna sends them to beg for food from some sacrificial brahmins in his name. They go, but return empty-handed. Krishna then considers the brahmins' wives and tells the boys to beg food from them. The brahmin women are already prepared and come with a great feast for him. Though the brahmin women are enchanted by his beauty and want to remain with him, Krishna turns them back. When they arrive at home, their bowls and houses are filled with precious stones, a miracle not found in BhP, invented by Jiva to explain why their husbands so readily understand their own fault and accept their wives. In BhP, the brahmins' self-flagellation continues for a somewhat lengthier period than here; Jiva has only three verses. 

The cowherds eat the food given to them by the brahmin women and Madhumangala, the jester, gets to play his role of glutton to the full.

Chapter 23: The joy of Krishna and the gopis' first embrace, their bantering songs 

The rasa-lila is considered by most commentators on Bhagavata, starting with Sridhar Swami, to be the most important recital therein. Sanatan Gosvami calls the five chapters to be as dear as the five senses (VT 29.1). Jiva has also described the events in five chapters (23-27), though he distributes the subject matter in a slightly different manner from the BhP. This will be taken up in each individual chapter. Jiva deems that the five chapters were recited in a single marathon session that took the whole night (jAgarana), with Snigdhakantha and Madhukantha taking turns. It is still the practice of many Bengali Vaishnavas to keep vigil on the rasa lila night to sing all the kirtans commemorating this lila.

Jiva states that he is revealing the most secret of all the pastimes of Krishna and warns that non-devotees should not be allowed to listen.
I have written that my poem contains all the sentiments; 
because of this audacious claim, 
I now seek to reveal the most confidential of all Krishna's pastimes. 
Therefore, those who follow the secret mistresses of Govinda in Vraja, 
should only allow this account to enter the ears of the worthy 
and not recite it in open assembly. (24)
Krishna hears celestial voices describing Radha's passion; he then finds a verse written by her in saffron on a tamala tree that reveals the extent to which her purva raga has awakened.
"Consumed by the fires of love, 
my mind permeated by thoughts of your great beauty, 
carrying the sweet burden of the flute song’s fragrance 
and seeing a black effulgence in every direction, 
I have become Krishna through and through, 
but even so, Krishna, I do not have you near me." (25)

The autumn moon rises and an extended account of the effect of the moon on Krishna in arousing his passions is given. Deciding that the time is now right, Krishna leaves the company of all but his four closest cowherd friends and looks for a suitable place where he can call the gopis with his flute, Radha first. 

Meanwhile, the other gopis are also feeling the effects of the moon. When Krishna blows his flute, it has a devastating effect on them. In an extended theological aside, Snigdhakantha considers the identities of the different types of gopis present in the rush to come to Krishna, clarifying the question of why some gopis, obstructed by their husbands, had to give up their material bodies (gunamaya-deha) in order to join Krishna. There too, Jiva refutes the obvious meaning of jAra-buddhyApi saGgataH, which militates against his conception of the gopis (at least those who are nitya-siddha) eternally identifying themselves as Krishna's wives. 

The abhisara is described in a series of rhyming verses in tunaka metre that compare the gopis to rivers rushing toward the sea. Upon their arrival near him, Krishna has eyes only for Radha. Krishna greets the gopis with clever statements that carry a double meaning: superficially, he appears to be sending them away, but each sentence can also be read as an invitation for them to stay. Within this monologue, Krishna mentions the gopis' children, which the speaker explains as the children of the gopis' brothers-in-law, etc., and not their own. Jiva shortens the instructions given by Krishna, noticeably dropping three verses where Krishna presses home the point about fidelity to husband and family. 

The gopis react to Krishna's equivocal words with distress and then answer him with a song, refusing to accept his terms, saying that he is their real husband. Finally, Krishna drops the masquerade, accepts and embraces them. 

Chapter 24: The joy of hearing about Radha's good fortune

Having met in the Vrindavan forest, Krishna and the gopis are now prepared to commence the rasa dance. Their preliminary dalliances come to an abrupt end when Krishna leaves the scene to be alone with Radha. This chapter covers BhP x.29.43-48 (the end) and x.30 in its entirety. This segment of the rasa lila is first found in the ViP and not in HV.

Krishna and the gopis begin their amusements together. Prose and verse commentary on these two verses of BhP (x.29.43-44), the first of the verses inspiring the prose, the latter a series of ten verses in various metres (vv7-16). Krishna elaborates on the reasons for his enigmatic disappearance from the scene: he wishes to demonstrate the superiority of Radha over the others gopis. The effects that separation from Krishna has on them is shown, particularly in their questioning of trees and animals. Jiva drops BhP x.30.14-23, where the gopis imitate the deeds of their beloved. The subsequent section on the discovery of the footprints of Krishna and another gopi is also found in ViP v.13.31-41. 

The gopis speculate about their special sister whom Krishna has spirited away. Radha and Krishna enter the kunja, which is described in several verses. Here we have an original addition, the description of the bower where the two have been hiding, what Krishna and Radha were doing at this time and their narrow escape from the intruding gopis. A theological aside at this point distinguishes Krishna's loves from those of ordinary mortal lovers. The point is to justify Krishna's departure from Radha rather than the erotic activities themselves. Thus "mana", which carried a negative sense in BhP x.29.48, causing Krishna's disappearance, and thus here as well, is transformed by Jiva into a particular sthayi bhava of love with positive implications. 

Both Krishna's and the gopis' love being placed beyond reproach, Jiva is ready to resume the story, which once again follows closely the lines of BhP. With the theological foundation established, Krishna's desertion of even Radha can now be tabled. When Krishna goes to hide, the gopis find the unfortunate Radha and ask her why she has been abandoned. Her answer is that this is due to her own faults and not to any wickedness on Krishna's part. Then, all joining together, the gopis wander for some time, and when they decide that Krishna must be feeling some shame for his behavior towards them, they go to the banks of the Yamuna where he should easily be able to find them.

Chapter 25: Krishna returns and puts an end to their feelings of separation

This chapter covers BhP x.31-32 in which the song of the gopis, known popularly as gopi gita is sung. In all, it seems as though Jiva has not felt it necessary or even possible to improve on the BhP in these two chapters and there is less innovation here than elsewhere.

First, Jiva expands the 19 verses of the gopis' song in BhP x.31. Krishna is attracted by the songs of the gopis and comes to them as the bewilderer of even Cupid himself. The gopis react to his arrival by serving him in various ways. These acts of service are assigned to individual gopis, whose names we learn. They then all go to the banks of the Yamuna where they sit together in resplendent beauty on the sands. As the gopis surround Krishna, serving and flattering him in various ways, they ask him a riddle half-seriously, half in anger, about the characteristics of lovers and the ways in which they respond to the love of others. Krishna enunciates and glorifies his special feeling for the gopis and the impossibility of his ever repaying their love. The chapter concludes with comments by heavenly observers.

Chapter 26: Expanding the pleasures of the rasa dance

This chapter covers the first portion of the last chapter of BhP's version of the rasa lila. It deals with the dance itself. Jiva gives special importance to Radha's exalted status amongst the gopis, rather than following the rather more egalitarian treatment found in Sanatan's comments on this section of BhP. Vrinda and the other sylphs come to serve the fatigued gopis and Krishna.

Chapter 27: The completion of the rasa-lila

This chapter contains primarily original material developed out of the last four descriptive verses of the rasa lila, i.e. BhP x.33.23-26. The two major themes are jala-vihara or water-sports, and vana-bhramana or forest wanderings. The first of these is entirely in verse (27 of them) in various metres, describing Krishna and the gopis going into the water, splashing each other, hiding amongst the lotuses, etc. Krishna repeats his trick of stealing the gopis' clothes. Finally dressed, Radha and Krishna look to the gods “like a bride and groom.” The vana-bhramana includes a promenade through the forest, playing hide and seek, observing different creatures and trees, etc. Finally dawn arrives; Krishna wipes the gopis' tears, but they must depart from the forest and slowly, reluctantly they return to their homes. 

Chapter 28: Going to the Ambika forest

This chapter is one of the shortest in GC i. It contains a story recounted in BhP x.34.1-21, where it is original (not found in HV or ViP). Described elaborately in this chapter are the arrangements for a pilgrimage to the Shivalinga at Ambikavana, the reactions of the other pilgrims there on seeing Krishna, and the rituals Nanda and the other cowherds perform. While sleeping, Nanda is attacked by a python and calls out to Krishna to rescue him. Others make the attempt, but only the touch of Krishna's foot has the desired effect. Condensed or eliminated here are BhP x.34.10-18, the past life of the Vidyadhara (who had been cursed to become the snake). Everyone congratulates Krishna and they return to the settlement.

Chapter 29: Secret activities adding zest to their loves

In relation to BhP, this chapter is one of the most original in the Purva-champu, depending more on the rasa shastra for its inspiration. Indeed, rather than presenting a narrative as such, this chapter has much of the nature of a kosha kavya, where the author presents various scenarios, in particular the eight nayika avasthas. The only connection to the BhP is made late in the chapter when we hear the state of the gopis when Krishna goes to Ambikavana, etc. This session takes place on the evening of the same day as chapter 28.

First described in this chapter are Vrinda's service in the forest and the deception of the elders in the morning. Jiva places the proshita bhartrika at the beginning of his description of the eight types of nayikas, explaining that separation in Vrindavan is so intense that it carries with it the nature of long separations elsewhere. This is followed by utkanthita, abhisarika, vipralabdha, khandita, kalahantarita andsvadhina-bhartrika. All these have the nature of a loose narrative sequence, comparable to Gita-govinda, though briefer. After this cycle, the early morning scenario (kunja bhanga) is celebrated. First Lalita awakens the couple with a song; this is followed by the sakhis' entry into the kunja, placing the flute into Krishna's hand, etc. This scene includes one verse in which Radha appears to suspect a friend of hers of misusing the trust placed in her to consort with Krishna. 

Next, the beginning of the spring festival that ends with Holi (found in the next chapter) is described. At this point, the gopis' elders, their in-laws, become distrustful and keep them confined and under guard to prevent their meeting with Krishna. At this point Krishna goes on the pilgrimage described in the previous chapter. Before his official return, however, Krishna sneaks back, taking various female disguises to meet clandestinely with Radha.

Chapter 30: Unabashedly playing the sports of Holi 

This chapter is for the most part original and entertaining. The first part, recited at the morning assembly, is based on x.34.25-33, i.e. the killing of Shankhacuda. This story differs from that found in BhP (and that in LalM) in that Krishna does not take the jewel from the demon's head, saying that it would be improper. 

The second session contains a lengthy narration of the Holi sports themselves: the gathering of forces, banter between Radha's duti and the vidushaka Madhumangala, who is really the star of this chapter. The duti is held hostage while Madhumangala is sent to the other side with a message from Krishna's group. Madhumangala proposes a truce based on a marriage between Radha's sister (?) and any member of Krishna's group. He praises Krishna, which causes Radha to be temporarily disconcerted. Lalita then counsels that as their duti is being held, they should dress Madhumangala as a woman and let him be the one given in marriage. On the other side, the duti is herself being dressed as a man to become the groom. The mock wedding takes place, but not to Radha and her friends' satisfaction and so war is declared. The Holi war, in which Balaram and his girlfriends also take part, concludes with Radha stealing Krishna's flute and taking him captive. The stealing of Krishna's flute also features in Kavi Karnapur's description of Holi in Ananda Vrindavan Champu (ch. 23).

Chapter 31: A picture of the diverse expression of their different loving feelings

This chapter follows three main themes. In the morning recital, Kamsa commissions both Arishta and Keshi, the last demons to be killed by Krishna in Vrindavan. Of these Arishta, in the terrible form of a giant bull, goes first, does battle with Krishna and meets his death.

Recited at the evening session is the chapter's second theme: the gopis' feelings of separation from Krishna during his days away from them while he tends the cattle. It contains some of the songs of the gopis found in BhP x.35.2-15 interspersed with a prose commentary that closely follows VT. Peripherally mentioned are some of Krishna's other activities with the gopis such as the dana lila, where the gopis go flower-picking and are obstructed by Krishna, and nauka vihara, where Krishna ferries them across the river, etc. 

The third theme, ostensibly based on the Varaha- and Vishnu Puranas, (26) is the creation of Shyama Kund and Radha Kund. This takes place subsequent to the killing of Arishta. Krishna purifies the location where Arishta had been killed by kicking the ground with his heel to release an underground spring. In conformity with Sanatan's comments on BhP, Krishna then returns home. 

That night, Krishna meets with the gopis again. When he boasts of his deed, Radha and her associates belittle it by emphasizing the sin incurred in killing a sacred animal. Krishna in turn tells them that by showing favor to a demon they too have become subject to sin and must perform an atonement. The result is Radha Kund (details of its construction are not given). This is followed by further descriptions of the gopis' beauty and good fortune. The rest of the chapter is consecrated to further descriptions of a rasa lila performed during the spring. 

Chapter 32: Telling the story of Keshi's destruction 

This chapter covers BhP x.36.16-20a (Narada's visit to Kamsa) and x.37.1-9 (the story of the killing of Keshi). Both of these themes were previously dealt with in HV (67.1-49) and ViP (v.16.1-18) in somewhat greater detail than BhP. Jiva drops most of the story of Narada's meeting with Kamsa. In HV there is a lengthy interlude from 64-66 which includes Narada's visit, Kamsa's speech in response to the information he receives from him as well as the advice proffered by Akrura. These same topics are covered rather more briefly in ViP v.15.1-24, and BhP x.36.16-40. Jiva devotes rather more attention to Keshi, with a few good descriptions. The chapter is one of the shortest in GCP and contains only a morning session. Jiva specifies that Krishna bathes in Keshi Tirtha after the battle with Keshi and before entering Vraja.

Chapter 33: The fulfilment of all desires 

This chapter takes its inspiration from the BhP x.37.10-24 in which Narada comes to Krishna after the killing of Keshi and gives him a brief account of the future events which will take place after he leaves Vraja. Jiva here summarizes the contents of the entire Uttara Champu, including the ending, which has been something of an open secret all along anyway. The morning and evening recitals are reversed in this chapter. The narrative starts at the evening assembly with Madhukantha where Krishna's feelings for the gopis are discussed; the remainder of the chapter is concerned with other sentiments, including the eventual marriage of Krishna to the gopis, that are considered suitable for the general audience.

After killing Keshi, Krishna considers the progression of events. He regrets that things are not going as smoothly as he had hoped and that it would perhaps have been better if he were to leave Vraja for some time to allow the bad reputation his affairs with the gopis have brought upon him to be smoothed over by the passage of time.
Verily such a separation shall bring about a purification in the future for those who suffer it, for it is said "In time, debts, wounds and dishonor all disappear," and because in my absence they will more perfectly fix their minds on me and in their remorse will become receptive to good instructions and advice.(27)
As Krishna considers his imminent departure and the effects it will have on his family, Narada Muni comes on the scene and the visions they each have of the other are described with copious metaphor. After Narada's short, puranic style stuti, he begins to tell Krishna about future events starting with his departure for Mathura and the killing of Kamsa, for
"Love brings everything under control," 
it seems to me that this proverb is not false, 
for even you Krishna, do not dispose of the order of events.(28)
Krishna listens interestedly, asking questions and making apostrophic comments, in particular showing anxiety as Narada tells him of increasingly lengthy adventures in Mathura and then Dvaraka, wondering exactly when he will return to Vraja. Narada describes to Krishna the continuing sentimental attachment he will have for Vraja.
Whenever you blow your conchshell, 
your eyes will seem to become moist, 
for filled with nostalgia, you will remember the happiness 
you had from suckling at Yashoda's breast. (29)
Hearing about the Syamantaka episode leads Krishna to make a critical aside comparing the Yadavas to the Vrajavasis:
Such is the association of the residents of the vraja, 
whose entire lives are devoted uniquely to me; 
how can it be compared to that of the Yadavas 
characterized by Satrajit, Shatadhanvan and the such? (30)

Introduction and Purva-champu chapters 1-2

Purva-champu, Balya Vilasa

Purva-champu, Kaishora-vilasa

Uttara-champu, Uddhava and Balaram’s visits to Vraja

Krishna returns to Vraja and marries the gopis


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