Priti Sandarbha 5.2 : The impossibility of absolute oneness of the jiva ...


It has been explained earlier that if absolute non-difference between the living entity and Īśvara is accepted, a single entity cannot simultaneously {be the shelter of } both knowledge and ignorance. Whether one accepts the absolute non-difference of the jīva as a part of Brahman or considers the jīva as a part of Brahman, one must equally take recourse to indirect meaning (lakṣaṇā) to interpret statements such as "You are that" (tat tvam asi, CU 6.8.7).

ekam evādvitīyaṁ sat nāma-rūpa-vivarjitam |
sṛṣṭeḥ purādhunāpy asya tādṛktvaṁ tad itīryate ||
śrotur dehendriyātītaṁ vastv atra tvaṁ-paderitam |
ekatā gṛhyate'sīti tad aikyam anubhūyatām ||

(Pañcadaśī 5.5-6)

Upaniṣadic statements describing the Absolute Reality as being without parts are of two kinds. The primary tendency is that of the Śrutis that are fixed on indicating the Supreme Truth characterized as the substantive [the word to be qualified or distinguished (by another word which is called viśeṣaṇa.)], because it is pure bliss. He, being qualified with all potencies, has nevertheless (tu) been described as the complete whole of all.

The secondary tendency is that of those Śrutis that indicate Him, whose nature is pure bliss, as being qualified (viśiṣṭa) with His internal potency. Its real import is only in stating that He is devoid of any material part whatsoever. He, being qualified with all potencies, has nevertheless (tu) been described as the complete whole of all.

In this way, as it is established that a living being is His portion in the way a photon or particle of the sun's ray [is to the sun], it is also established that, in all its states [conditioned or liberated], it has the same intrinsic qualities such as agency and enjoyership that He has.

And these qualities become functional in the same way [i.e., proportionately, in the way the photon is an atomic portion of the sun's energy and dependent on it] only by the support of the power of the Supreme God. These qualities in the jīvas such as agency within the material transformations [like the body] function by the support of the His māyā potency. Thus as a result of its relation with Māyā, i.e., agency, enjoyership and so on, it is subjected to the material world. But the agency in the realization of the self, that of Brahman and of Bhagavān, comes by the grace of His internal potency.

This is confirmed by the Śruti, "Where the Self has become everything, then who would see what, and with what instrument?" (BAU 2.4.14). The Śruti, "He is to be attained only by the one whom He chooses" (KU 1.2.23) indicates the incapacity of a living being to see Him without the aid of His internal potency.

tatra jīveśvarayor atyantābhede yugapad avidyā-vidyāśrayatvādy-anupapattiś ca pūrvaṁ vivṛtā | "tat tvam asi" [chā.u. 2.8.7] ity-ādau lakṣaṇā tv atyantābhede tad-aṁśatve ca samānaiva |

parama-tattvasya niraṁśatva-śrutis tu dvidhā pravartate | tatra kevala-viśeṣya-lakṣaṇa-nirdeśa-parāyā mukhyaiva pravṛttiḥ, ānanda-mātratvāt tasya | ānandaika-rūpasya tasya svarūpa-śakti-viśiṣṭasya nirdeśa-parāyās tu prākṛtāṁśa-leśa-rāhitya-mātre tātparyād gauṇī pravṛttiḥ | sarva-śakti-viśiṣṭasya tasya tu sarvāṁśitvaṁ gītam eva |

tad evaṁ tasya raśmi-paramāṇu-sthānīyāṁśatve siddhe tadvat sarvasyām api daśāyāṁ kartṛtva-bhoktṛtvādi-svarūpa-dharmā api sidhyanti | tadvad eva ca parameśvara-śakty-anugraheṇaiva te kārya-kṣamā bhavanti | tatra teṣāṁ prakṛti-vikāra-maya-kartṛtvādikaṁ tadīya-māyā-śakti-mayānugraheṇa | ata eva tat-sambandhāt teṣāṁ saṁsāraḥ | svānubhava-brahmānubhava-bhagavad-anubhava-kartṛtvādikaṁ tu tadīya-svarūpa-śakty-anugraheṇa |


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