Bhakti Sandarbha 333-334 : Dharma Offered to Kṛṣṇa Brings Perfection



Here conclude the teachings from Uddhava-saṁvāda.. I find it rather interesting that after all that rāgānigā talk he returns to something as weak sounding as engaging in one's dharmic duties in consciousness of Him. It reminds me of the inquiry I made into āropa-siddhā bhakti way back in the early days of this blog. [Āropa-siddhā was discussed in Bhakti Sandarbha posts from 217 to 225 (five posts in all). You can see those early posts here: Ahangrahopasana III and IV. I have yet to find a devotee who understands these articles.



Anuccheda 333

Dharma Offered to Kṛṣṇa Brings Perfection

अथ तामेव कैमुत्येनाप्याह (भा. ११.२९.२१)—

यो यो मयि परे धर्मः कल्प्यते निष्फलाय चेत्।
तत्रायासोऽनिरर्थः स्याद्भयादेरिव सत्तम॥

Bhagavān expressed this superiority of His own worship by the a fortiori or kaimutya principle:

O pious Uddhava, whatever dharma is offered to Me, the Supreme, if it is done without fruitive purpose, then the effort undertaken never goes in vain, just as was seen in the case of fear and other similar emotions [when experienced in relation to Me]. (SB 11.29.21)

मयि मदर्पितत्वेन कृतो यो यो धर्मो वेदविहितः, स स यदि निष्फलाय फलाभावाय कल्प्यते, फलकामनया नार्प्यत इत्यर्थः, तदा तत्र तत्रायासः श्रान्तिरनिरर्थः स्यात्, व्यर्थो न भवति।

Whatever dharmas or duties prescribed by the Vedas are done as an offering to Me, if they are done without fruitive purpose (niṣphalāya), that is, they are offered without any desire for the result, then whatever effort or work was put into them does not go in vain (anirartha), i.e., it is not wasted.

निष्फलायेति विशेषणं फलभोगादिरूपतद्भक्त्यन्तरायाभावेन अनिरर्थतातिशयतात्पर्यम्। तत्रानिरर्थत्वे कैमुत्येन श्रीकृष्णलक्षणस्य स्वस्यासाधारणभजनीयताव्यञ्जको दृष्टान्तः—भयादेरिव इति। यथा कंसादौ मत्सम्बन्धमात्रेण भयादेरप्यायासो निरर्थो न भवति, मोक्षसम्पादकत्वादित्यर्थः॥

"Without fruitive purpose" (niṣphalāya) is a modifier that signifies that due to the absence of obstacles to devotion that arise from the desire to enjoy the fruits of action they are exceedingly devoid of meaninglessness. To show how these efforts are not in vain he offers the example of relating to Kṛṣṇa out of fear. This example argues a fortiori, revealing His own extraordinarily worshipable nature as Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Just as in the case of Kaṁsa and others, their efforts which were motivated by fear and other similar emotions, did not go in vain, simply because of being related to Kṛṣṇa, because even fear in relation to Kṛṣṇa leads to liberation.

[So, if even fear connected to Bhagavān is never wasted, then how much more true it must be in the case of prescribed duties performed in relation to Him?]



Commentary by Satyanarayana Dasa Babaji

There are two types of modifiers, samānādhikaraṇa and vyadhikaraṇa. The first one has the same gender, case, and number as the object it qualifies, and the second not so. Niṣphalāya is the second type of adjective.

If one offers one’s prescribed duties to Kṛṣṇa without desiring anything material in return then it will bring one to the platform of pure bhakti.


Anuccheda 334

Kṛṣṇa Fulfills All The Goals of Pure Devotees

अथ श्रीमदुद्धववत् श्रीकृष्णैकानुगतानां साधनत्वे साध्यत्वे च स्वयं श्रीकृष्णरूप एव परमोपादेय इत्याह (भा. ११.२९.३३)—

For devotees like Uddhava, who are exclusively devoted to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, only the original form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa is preferable above all, both in the stage of practice and in perfection, as indicated in this verse:



ज्ञाने कर्मणि योगे च वार्तायां दण्डधारणे।
यावान् अर्थो नृणां तात तावांस्तेऽहं चतुर्विधः॥

My beloved Uddhava, for you I am the entire range of the fourfold goals attained by human beings through self-knowledge, prescribed duty, yoga, business, and administration of justice. (SB 11.29.33)

ज्ञानादौ यावान् धर्मादिलक्षणश्चतुर्विधोऽर्थः, तावान् सर्वोऽप्यहमेव। तत्र ज्ञाने मोक्षः। कर्मणि धर्मः कामश्च। योगे नानाविधसिद्धिलक्षणो लौकिको वार्तायां दण्डधारणे च नानाविधलौकिकश्चार्थ इति चतुर्विधत्वं ज्ञेयम्॥

The fourfold goals refer to religion, prosperity, enjoyment and liberation. These are achieved through self-knowledge and the other means mentioned in the verse. Kṛṣṇa says, “I alone am the entire range of all these goals.” As far as the fourfold goals are concerned, it should be understood that liberation is attained through self-knowledge, religion and enjoyment through proper execution of prescribed duties, different types of psychic powers through yoga, and varieties of material prosperity through business and administration of justice.

॥११.२९॥ श्रीभगवान्॥३३०-३३४॥



Commentary by Satyanarayana Dasa Babaji

Religion, material prosperity, sense enjoyment, and liberation are the four human pursuits. The actions of human beings are aimed to achieve these foru things. There are different processes to achieve them which are listed in this verse. A devotee, however, does not have to engage in these processes to achieve any or all of the four goals. Kṛṣṇa can fulfill any desire of His devotee, if devotee has any. Pure devotees do not desire anything other than loving service to Kṛṣṇa. But if ever they happen to desire something they need not endeavor for it separately.


Comments


It is an interesting fact that arundo tibialis (Karka) grows in sunny areas in and on the banks of streams, rivers and lakes; grows best in a sunny position, requires a very moist to a wet soil or shallow standing water:

An image of arundo tibialis:

http://tropical.theferns.info/plantimages/5/7/57adbd8d6bbbcab56eed64e1ac0910c25cce2e3f.jpg

See:

https://jagadanandadas.blogspot.com/2020/04/bhakti-sandarbha-3202-4-love-for.html?showComment=1588177442237#c194239905710815664
Anonymous said…

Notes to the previous comment

आरोप (ā-ropa) “placing on; superimposition; ā-roha, etc. See ā-√ ruh:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=151.gif

आरोह (ā-roha) “(masculine) one who mounts or ascends, a rider (on a horse etc.), one who is seated in a carriage; ascent, rising, creeping up, mounting; elevation, elevated place; a heap, mountain; increase; the swell of the body; length:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=151.gif

See also रोह (róha) “(√ 1. ruh) rising, mounting, ascending; rising, height; mounting, ascending; growth, increase; sprouting, germinating; a shoot, sprout, bud, blossom:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=890.gif

आरुह् (ā-√ ruh) “1. to ascend, mount, bestride, rise up; to arise, come off; to venture upon, undertake; to attain, gain; to raise; to string (a bow); to cause to grow; to plant; to place, deposit, fasten; to produce, cause, effect; to attribute; to wish to ascend or mount. 2. ascending; excrescence, shoot (of a plant):”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=151.gif

रुह् (ruh) 1. (√ 1. rudh) to ascend, mount, climb; to reach to, attain (a desire); to rise, spring up, grow, develop, increase; to grow together or over; to cause to ascend, raise up, elevate; to place in or on, fix in, fasten to, direct towards; to put in the ground, plant, sow (in this case JD used as a metaphor); to cause to grow, increase; to cause to grow over. 2. rising, growth, sprout, shoot; shooting, sprouting, growing, produced in or on:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=885.gif

रुध् (rudh) “1 (cf. √ 1. ruh, of which this seems to be only another form), cl. 1. P. ródhati, to sprout, shoot, grow (only ródhati cf. RV. viii, 43, 6 and viródhat, i, 67, 9 accord. to some also p. rudhat, i, 179, 4, in nadásya rudhatáḥ kā'maḥ, 'the desire of the growing reed' i.e. of the membrum virile fr. √ 2. rudh ; also नद nada):”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=884.gif

नद (nadá) “roarer, bellower, thunderer, crier; a river (if thought of as male); = नड naḍá a species of reed; नदी nadī:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=526.gif

नड (naḍá) “or m. ( cf. L. also n. ) a species of reed, Arundo Tibialis (in relation to Arundo Tibialis, Tāntrikas will think of the word वीर (vīrá) here JD) or Karka cf. RV. cf. AV. cf. ŚBr.:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=525.gif

नदी nadī “f. flowing water, a river (commonly personified as a female but nadá above).

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=526.gif

रु (ru) “to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud; to make any noise or sound, sing, hum (as bees); to praise (as in the following definition); to cause to bellow or roar, cause an uproar; to bellow or roar etc. loudly, scream aloud. 2. Sound, noise. 4. cutting, dividing:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=881.gif

ह (ha) “2. ( only L. ), m. a form of Śiva or Bhairava; water; a cipher (i.e. the arithmetical figure which symbolizes o); meditation, auspiciousness; sky, heaven, paradise; blood; dying; knowledge; the moon; Viṣṇu; horripilation; a horse; (ā), f. coition; a lute; (am), n. the Supreme Spirit; pleasure, delight; the sparkling of a gem; calling, calling to; the sound of a lute; mfn. mad, drunk:”

http://www.sanskrita.org/scans/visor.html?scan=1286.gif

Further Notes

Justice (h₂ey)

From the noun h₂óyu ~ h₂yéw-, from the root h₂ey- (“vital force, life”):

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h%E2%82%82yew-

From Proto-Indo-European h₂yew- “oath, law:”

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Italic/jowos

From justice, from Old French justise, justice, borrowed from Latin iūstitia, jūstitia (“righteousness, equity”), from iūstus (“just”), from iūs (“right”), from Proto-Indo-European h₂yew:

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/justice
Anonymous said…

Looking across cultures, this reminds one of the "wisdom of Seshat" (depicted wearing the symbolic headdress of a papyrus stem (a 'wetland sedge') surmounted by a pair of (stylized) horned vipers):

https://dropping-seeds.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/DS13_SeshatLuxorfulloptim-e1425333279992.jpg
Anonymous said…

आवरण (ā-varaṇa) → आवृ (ā- √ vṛ) + ण (ṇa)

विक्षेप (vi-kṣepa) → वि (ví) + क्ष (kṣa) fr. √ क्षि (kṣi) + प (pa)


Quote:

atattve tattvabhāvena jīvo dehāvṛtaḥ sthitaḥ |
nirdeho bhavati śrīmān sukhī tattvaikabhāvanāt || 21 ||

It is the mistaking of the unreal for the real or what is the same, the ascribing of reality to the unreality that gives the colour of reality to false material bodies; but the knowledge of the truth removes the error of the corporal body, and restore the soul to its wonted splendour and true felicity.

anātmani śarīrādāvātmabhāvanamaṅga yat |
sūryādyālokadurbhedaṃ hārdaṃ taddāruṇaṃ tamaḥ || 22 ||

But the error of taking the material body for the immaterial soul, is so deep rooted in the mind; that it is as difficult to remove, as it is for the strongest sun beams to perceive the mental gloom of men.

ātmanyevātmabhāvena sarvavyāpi nirañjanam |
cinmātramamalo'smīti jñānādityena naśyati || 23 ||

This impervious darkness of the mind, is only to be perceived by the sun-shine of knowledge; that our soul is the seat of immaculate and all pervading spirit of God, and that I myself am no other than the pure intellect which is in me.

anye ca viditātmāno bhāvayanti yathaiva yat |
tattathaivāśu paśyanti dṛḍhabhāvanayā tayā || 24 ||

Those that have known the supreme soul meditate on it in this manner in their own souls, until they find themselves to be assimilated to the same by their extensive thought of it.

Yoga-Vāsiṣṭha of Vāmīki. English translation by Vihari-Lala Mitra (1891)

See:

https://archive.org/details/YogaVasisthaEnglish/page/n5423/mode/2up/search/aropa

Jagadananda Das said: You can see those early posts here: Ahangrahopasana III and IV. I have yet to find a devotee who understands these articles.

Is my person on the right track with this?

See pages 368 to 370 (Kaivalya-navanītam [Butter of Kaivalya-Mokṣa] by Tāṇḍavarāya Svāmikal):

https://archive.org/details/preceptorsofadvaitamahadevant.m.p.seeotherbooks_202003_226_y/page/n383/mode/2up/search/some+authors


(N.B.* Toggle fullscreen to read)

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