Priti Sandarbha 5.10(b) : Knowing Brahman Is the Paramartha
tasya evaṁ-lakṣaṇasya paramātma-rūpeṇa ātma-para-deheṣu ātmanaḥ pareṣām api deheṣu tat-tad-upādhi-bhedena pṛthak pṛthag iva sato’pi ekaṁ tadīyaṁ sva-svarūpaṁ tan-mayaṁ tad-ātmakaṁ yad vijñānaṁ tad-anubhavaḥ asāv eva paramārthaḥ | anāśitvāt sādhyatvāt sarva-vijñānāntarbhāvavattvāc ceti bhāvaḥ | ye tu dvaitinaḥ tat-tad-upādhi-dṛṣṭyā tasyāpi bhedaṁ manyante | tad-vijñānena sarva-vijñānāntarbhāvaṁ ca na manyante | te punar atathya-darśina eveti |
Realization of That which has all the above characteristics as One, i.e., as situated in Its own essential being, even while present as the Supreme [or Higher] Self in one's own body as well as in those of others, despite seeming to be separate because of the differences in the adjuncts (upādhis [i.e., the bodies]), is the supreme goal because it is imperishable, achievable and contains all other experiences within it. But the dualists who think Him to be different on the basis of those adjuncts and do not accept that experience of Him contains all other experiences in it, are certainly not perceiving things as they are.
tatropādhi-bhedair aṁśa-bhede’py abhedo dṛṣṭāntena sādhito dvābhyām—
In the next two verses Jaḍa Bharata uses an example to establish that non-difference exists [in the Ultimate Truth] despite the differences in Its parts caused by the adjuncts (upādhi):
veṇu-randhra-vibhedena bhedaḥ ṣaḍjādi-saṁjñitaḥ |
abheda-vyāpino vāyos tathā tasya mahātmanaḥ ||
ekatvaṁ rūpa-bhedaś ca bāhya-karma-pravṛttijaḥ |
devādi-bheda-madhyāste nāsty evāvaraṇo hi saḥ || [vi.pu. 2.14.32-33] iti |
The oneness of that Great Self is like the one non-differentiated pervasive air which is termed as the notes such as sadaja, when it passes through the different holes of the flute. He is one but the differences in the forms is born out of the result of the external action (of the living being) . He exists as the presiding person in the various divisions of bodies such as the devas but He is not covered by these bodies. (VP 2.14.32- 33)
tathā tasya ekatvam ity anvayaḥ | rūpasya tat-tad-ākārasya bhedas tu bāhyasya tadīya-bahiraṅga-cid-aṁśasya jīvasya yā karma-pravṛttis tato jātaḥ | sa tu paramātmā devādi-bhedam antaryāmitayaivādhiṣṭhāyāste tat-tad-upādhi-sambandhābhāvāc ca nāsty eva āvaraṇaṁ yasya tathā-bhūtaḥ sann iti | tasmāt tasya devādi-rūpatā tu sva-līlā-mayy eveti bhāvaḥ ||
Similar is His oneness – this is the formation of the sentence. The difference in various bodies is born out of the result of engagement in karma by a living entity, the external conscious part of Him. But He, the Paramātmā, exists in the various divisions of bodies such as the devas, as the immanent presiding deity. And He has no covering because He is not related to these bodies, the upādhis. Therefore His appearance as the devas is only His pastime – this is the import.
vāyur yathaiko bhuvanaṁ praviṣṭo
rūpaṁ rūpaṁ pratirūpo babhūva |
ekas tathā sarva-bhūtāntarātmā
rūpaṁ rūpaṁ pratirūpo bahiś ca ||
Just as the one air enters into the universe and every form in it, taking a form similar to each, so does the one Self within all living beings enter each form, taking on a similar one, even while still existing outside them. (KU 2.2.10).
yathāgneḥ kṣudrā visphuliṅgā vyuccaranti,
evam evāsmād ātmanaḥ
sarve prāṇāḥ sarve lokāḥ sarve devāḥ
sarvāṇi bhūtāni vyuccaranti.
Just as all the tiny sparks come forth from the fire, so does all life, so do all these worlds and these gods, all creatures, spring from the Supreme Self. (BAU 2.1.20)
So also it is thus, whoever comes to know ‘I am Brahman’, he becomes it All... (BAU 1.4.10)
After considering these various possibilities of puruṣārtha, Jaḍa Bharata speaks about the supreme puruṣārtha. The above-mentioned options are good but cannot be the ultimate puruṣārtha. The ultimate puruṣārtha is that reality which exists in all and yet is one; It is not many like the jīvas.
It pervades the whole creation, which is a manifestation of Its potency. Pervasion does not mean that It exists in one place only and spreads Its influence like the light of a bulb. It exists everywhere, sarvagataḥ. The name, form and qualities of The Absolute are not asat or material. They are part of His svarūpa. This was discussed in Bhagavat Sandarbha. He exists in all as the Paramātmā yet He is one.
To experience Him is the puruṣārtha. The reason for this is that such an experience is eternal, it is the recommended goal of life, and this experience contains all other experiences such as experience of the self, union of self with Brahman. In Tattva, Bhagavat and Paramātma Sandarbhas it has been explained that the one Tattva manifests as Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān. Brahman is the unqualified aspect of Bhagavān. Experience of Bhagavān contains the experience of Brahman. Thus experience of Bhagavān is the ultimate goal, puruṣārtha.
Of the various forms of Bhagavān, Kṛṣṇa is the Svayaṁ Bhagavān. Thus experiencing Him is the real puruṣārtha. He is the Advaya Tattva proclaimed in Śruti statements such as ekam eva advitīyam.
The oneness of this reality is spoken by Jaḍa Bharata. The air is one, but when it flows into the different holes of a flute, it gives rise to the different notes of the scale, which are seven in number beginning with ṣaḍaja. Similarly the Absolute Reality is one but manifests in many ways. His jīva potency also manifests in a variety of ways by the influence of past karma.